Diseases of the heart muscle


The heart is a hollow muscular body the size of a fist, its walls are formed mainly by the transversely striated cardiac muscle. The septum divides the heart into the right and left halves, each of which is formed by the atrium and the ventricle. The direction of blood flow inside the main organ of our circulatory system is controlled by valves. Individual fibers of the heart muscle are connected to the network, the walls of their cells are permeable. Thanks to this, the heart can quickly contract.

What are the diseases of the heart muscle?

Heart diseases are congenital or acquired diseases that result in a change in the heart muscle. Depending on the reason, the so-called. Idiopathic and specific cardiomyopathies. Distinguish between hypertrophic, dilated and restrictive cardiomyopathies.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy

Today mutations of genes that cause this cardiomyopathy have already been discovered. During the illness, not only the thickening of the myocardium occurs, but also a change in its structure: the muscle fibers "twist", become large, acquire strange shapes. The first symptoms of the disease appear in childhood: shortness of breath, chest pain, uneven heart rate. A check with ultrasound and an electrocardiogram show the impaired activity of the heart muscle.

Usually, the muscle thickens due to heart defects or dilated blood vessels. However, coronary vessels do not grow at the same time as the heart, which is the reason for insufficient oxygen supply to the myocardium.

The disease is treated with medication. Sometimes a patient needs a heart transplant.


  • Dyspnea.
  • Chest pain.
  • Fast fatiguability.
  • Cardiopalmus.

Congestive cardiomyopathy

Congestive cardiomyopathy is a common cardiovascular disease. Most often men suffer. The disease can be recognized by the characteristic symptoms of heart failure and heart rhythm disturbances: dyspnea, wheezing, irregular heartbeat, swelling around the ankles, fatigue; In some cases, pain in the heart and hemoptysis. Congestive cardiomyopathy is usually treated with drugs designed to eliminate cardiac arrhythmias and heart failure.

Dilated cardiomyopathy is manifested by a sharp expansion of all chambers of the heart with a decrease in the contractile function of the left ventricle. It usually occurs simultaneously with hypertensive disease, stenosis of the aortic orifice, ischemic heart disease. The main method of treatment of this disease is cardiac transplantation.

In diseases of the myocardium, the risk of embolism increases, so drugs that reduce blood clotting are prescribed. Especially justified is the use of acetylsalicylic acid. The disease is severe with a frequent fatal outcome. In some cases, heart transplantation is necessary.

With cardiomyopathy, you must follow a special diet recommended by your doctor. It is especially important to limit the use of salt and liquid. It is required to reduce excess weight.

Restrictive cardiomyopathy

Restrictive cardiomyopathy is extremely rare. The reason - inflammation of the myocardium or complication after surgery on the valves of the heart. In this case, the muscle itself, its membranes are regenerated into connective tissue, the filling of the ventricles with blood is slowed. Symptoms of the disease - severe shortness of breath, very fast fatigue, heart failure or valvular heart disease. Restrictive cardiomyopathy is extremely dangerous for children. For the treatment of drugs used to improve the activity of the heart, and diuretics.

Causes of development

Inflammation of the heart muscle (myocarditis) - is focal or diffuse, covering the entire heart muscle, inflammation of the myocardium. More common are mild forms of myocarditis. However, in severe cases, in places where there were inflammation foci, scarring may remain, which is the cause of impairment of the propagation of impulses along the conduction system of the heart and the occurrence of disturbances in the heart rhythm. There is a lack of function of the heart, the heart muscle thickens.

Inflammation of the myocardium causes various diseases. Usually these are inflammatory diseases that affect the heart. With active rheumatism, myocarditis is possible. The main cause of myocarditis is bacterial and viral infections, for example, tonsillitis, diphtheria, scarlet fever or influenza, as well as toxoplasmosis and trichinosis. If you have one of these diseases, you must strictly adhere to bed rest. In addition, myocarditis can occur with allergic diseases and diseases of the body's immune system. However, the cause of myocarditis is usually unknown. It may depend on the epidemiological situation of the region, for example, in Europe and North America, myocarditis often causes viruses. It is assumed that many viral infections affect the heart muscle, but this does not always show clear clinical symptoms.


Until inflammation or underlying disease occurs, strict adherence to bed rest and physical activity should be strictly followed. Thus, the patient's heart is protected from excessive load and residual phenomena. Usually such treatment is enough. If myocarditis is caused by a bacterial infection, then antibiotics are prescribed. For example, in the case of diphtheria, the toxins of bacteria are a big danger, so the patient is prescribed an antidote. If the rhythm of the heart, low blood pressure or symptoms of heart failure are treated, drug treatment is performed.

If the infectious disease the patient has weakness, irregular heartbeat or other heart rhythm disturbances, it is necessary to consult a doctor. With fast fatigue, with difficulty breathing during exercise, dyspnea, anxiety, you should also consult a doctor.

With the help of percussion and auscultation of the chest, the doctor will determine the general condition of the patient's main "motor". If suspected, myocarditis will be given an electrocardiogram (EEG), an x-ray of the chest. When viewing an X-ray, the doctor will determine whether the blood flow has slowed down due to heart failure. If a suspected acute myocarditis is suspected, the doctor will immediately send the patient to the hospital.

Course of the disease

If the heart muscle is not protected during the inflammation period, certain parts of the muscle tissue may die, where the scars form in the place of death. As a result, the rhythm of the heart is broken, and sometimes the muscle itself changes. Sometimes, after some time after myocarditis, weakness and dyspnea associated with enlargement of the heart chambers may occur. The course of myocarditis largely depends on the age of the patient. In young children and the elderly, there may be a course of myocarditis with rapid progression and death. In other age groups, the prognosis of the disease is favorable.

If there is a cold or an infectious disease, bed rest should be observed. Do not go in for sports, do not visit the sauna or sauna, as this increases the risk of heart muscle damage.