Scleroderma is the consolidation and sclerosis of connective tissue. This disease refers to rheumatic diseases or a group of connective tissue diseases. With scleroderma, the connective tissue thickens, the blood vessels are damaged, the walls of which thicken. The skin of the affected parts of the body becomes smooth, stretched, shiny, welded to the underlying tissues, inelastic, which causes limited movement. As a result, the skin becomes ivory. There are two basic forms of scleroderma: localized (ring-shaped) and systemic (diffuse).
- Violation of blood circulation in the upper and lower extremities.
- Drowsing wounds at the fingertips.
- Face resembling a mask.
- Pain in the affected limbs.
- Swelling of the fingers, numbness of the hands, stop.
Symptoms of localized scleroderma appear only in certain places, for example, in the forehead, on the upper and lower extremities. Possible atrophy of one half of the face (hemiatrophy), a characteristic symptom is the presence on the face of a scar-saber-like lesion, similar to a saber blow.
Systemic scleroderma is a chronic systemic disease of connective tissue and small vessels with fibro-sclerotic changes in the skin of internal organs. Affected all the new skin, then the mucous membranes, the heart, lungs and kidneys. Ulcers, scars and constrictions are formed. These lesions often cause the death of the patient.
This disease often affects people aged 30 to 60 years, very rarely sick children. Scleroderma can be mild or may pose a threat to the patient's life. Affected fingers and toes, hands and feet. Affected feet acquire a pale or bluish color, the skin stretches, swells, pains appear. Pads of the fingers swell, they become wet wounds, the skin becomes dense, firm, the movements of the patient are constrained. Progressive scleroderma can affect any organ. With the systemic form of the disease, the densification of the facial skin begins from the forehead, the features become immobile, frozen, the face resembles a mask. The mouth cavity decreases, the patient is barely able to move the tongue. Later, when the mucosa of the esophagus becomes denser, there are disturbances in swallowing, as well as digestion. The disease progresses rapidly, renal and heart failure occurs. The cause of death is the compaction of the heart and lung tissue.
If the lesions have the shape of large, round, dense plaques of ivory color without any internal sclerosis, this is an annular scleroderma. These plaques may disappear spontaneously in time.
It is assumed that the systemic scleroderma is stimulated by viruses, poisonings, chronic disease, congenital predisposition.
It is impossible to protect yourself from scleroderma by preventive measures. Self-medication is not recommended. If you have symptoms of the disease, you should immediately call your doctor.
The doctor will examine the affected areas of the skin. Assign a blood test, wanting to make sure the presence of autoantibodies in the patient's blood. It is also necessary to determine the rate of erythrocyte sedimentation (ESR).
With localized scleroderma, drugs containing glucocorticoids are injected into the affected areas, physiotherapy and ultrasound are used. Thus, it is possible to suspend the further development of the disease. It is much more difficult to treat systemic scleroderma. This disease is being treated with glucocorticoids and other hormones, penicillamine and drugs that improve blood circulation, in addition, physiotherapy methods of treatment are widely used. Further development of the disease can be stopped extremely rarely.