Metabolic disorders


The basis of metabolism is chemical reactions that occur in the human body. All substances for metabolic reactions, except oxygen, enter the body with food. Usually the body is dominated by the equilibrium of the processes of construction and splitting. However, this balance can be violated for various reasons.

Causes of metabolic disorders

Some metabolic disorders can be hereditary or result from organic diseases. However, very often metabolic disorders are caused by malnutrition, and are also possible with excess or deficiency of certain nutrients. Excess of some nutrients in the body occurs if a person consumes too much fatty foods. The lack of certain elements arises with strict adherence to the diet for weight loss.

The basis of "miracle" diets for weight loss is often monotonous food. This is very harmful to health, because With such nutrition, the body begins to lack certain nutrients, and there are various disorders, for example, celiac disease. Such violations include the occurrence of allergies to certain foods.

It is not always recommended to consume vitamins, because the body usually gets them in sufficient quantities with food, especially if the person is eating properly. However, with active sports, heavy physical exertion or with a diet, such medications should be taken.

What are the metabolic disorders?

Usually the manifestation of metabolic disorders as a result of excess nutrients is obesity. In a broad sense, this group includes gout, some forms of diabetes mellitus, digestive disorders, and the like. The nature of metabolic disorders also depends on what substances or what chemical elements the body lacks. In addition to carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, it can be nitrogen, sulfur, sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, chlorine, iron, copper, manganese, zinc, cobalt, iodine and phosphorus.

Often as a result of a violation of the balance of mineral substances and vitamins, the symptoms of which can be painful muscle weakness or severe cardiovascular disorders, bones and other tissues are affected. Infants have abnormalities in growth and development.

Violation of the vitamin balance

Vitamins are organic substances necessary for the normal metabolism and vital activity of a person. They are formed in the human body or come from food. Sometimes in the body there is a deficiency or excess of a particular vitamin. Deficiency of vitamins arises from malnutrition, abuse of alcohol or medications.

Vitamin A deficiency

Vitamin A (retinol) is a vitamin that is soluble in fats. In large quantities, it is found in the liver, egg yolks, oil and margarine. Carotene is rich in carrots, spinach and cabbage. A lack of vitamin A leads to a worsening of twilight vision, a clouding of the cornea. The skin becomes dry, rough, begins to peel off. In addition, the body's resistance to infectious diseases decreases, children are disrupted by growth and mental development, apathy occurs, and sometimes anemia. Adding fat to the food improves the absorption of retinol and carotene from the digestive tract.

Vitamin D deficiency

Vitamin D (calciferol) also dissolves in fats. The skin produces a small amount of vitamin D under the action of solar, namely ultraviolet rays. A large amount of this vitamin contains: fish, egg yolk, milk, butter, liver, margarine. With a lack of vitamin D in children, rickets develop. In the absence of treatment, the joints thicken, the thorax deforms, and the shape of the head changes. In severe cases, due to a decrease in bone density, bone fragility increases. To ensure that the child's body produces enough vitamin D, he should often be in the fresh air. In adults, vitamin D deficiency leads to softening of the bones.

Deficiency of vitamin B1

A large amount of vitamin B1 (thiamin) is found in foods such as pork, yeast, black bread, liver, legumes, potatoes and milk. With a shortage of this vitamin, carbohydrate metabolism, nervous system and heart activity are disrupted, and the protective functions of the body are weakened. At the person there is an increased fatigability, irritability, the appetite decreases. Later, the peripheral nerves of the limbs are damaged. There are muscle pains, later the muscles atrophy, coordination of movements is disrupted. To reduce the amount of vitamin B1 in the body results in the consumption of a large amount of alcohol. In order to prevent vitamin B1 deficiency, yeast in tablets is usually taken.

Vitamin B2 deficiency

The source of vitamin B2 (riboflavin) is yeast, milk and dairy products (excluding butter), coarse bread with bran, beans, beans, cereals, eggs, Brussels and cauliflower. Smoking and alcohol abuse lead to a deficiency of this vitamin. Its shortage can be observed in the post-operative period or with certain diseases. Deficiency of vitamin B2 is manifested by cracks in the corners of the lips, brittle nails, skin peeling, inflammation of the tongue and mucous membranes of the mouth, and visual impairment.

Vitamin B6 deficiency

A large amount of vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) is found in cereals (especially buckwheat), vegetables, meat, fish, potatoes. Women taking hormonal contraceptive pills should additionally take this vitamin. The need for it grows when you consume a large number of proteins. Symptoms of vitamin B6 deficiency are lack of appetite, skin and kidney damage, growth disorders, anemia. In this case, you need to eat a large amount of coarse bread with bran and brewer's yeast.

Vitamin C deficiency

Symptoms: fatigue, irritability, poor working capacity, poor wound healing, bleeding of mucous membranes, anemia, decreased appetite, low resistance to infectious diseases. More often observed in smokers.

Signs of a deficiency of nutrients

In order for cells to grow and perform their functions, mineral substances are needed. They are divided into macroelements and microelements. The macroelements include: sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, calcium and phosphorus; To microelements - iron, fluorine, zinc, silicium, copper, vanadium, tin, selenium, manganese, iodine, nickel, molybdenum, chromium and cobalt. Some trace elements in the human body are so small that it is almost impossible to determine their content using conventional methods. However, with their deficiency, malaise occurs.

What minerals are necessary for a person?

With proper nutrition, there are usually no health problems. Some minerals are found in almost all foods, so sometimes the body gets them in excess.

Sodium and chlorine

The ions of sodium and chlorine, which are part of table salt, are one of the main factors that cause an increase in blood pressure. When you consume large amounts of salt, your blood pressure rises, which can be very dangerous. With salted food and liquid, we get up to 30 grams of salt per day, while for normal functioning of the body, it is 5 g. Patients with high blood pressure should follow a diet and take no more than 3-6 g of salt per day. Signs of deficiency of table salt - nervousness, muscle spasms and circulatory disorders - are extremely rare. They quickly disappear after drinking salted water.

Potassium and magnesium

Per day the human body needs 800 mg of potassium. It is this amount of potassium that he receives when eating food and liquids. With food, a person also receives a sufficient amount of magnesium. A rich source of magnesium is coarse bread with bran, fruits of legumes, potatoes, berries, meat and fish. However, if a person constantly uses monotonous food, this can lead to a deficiency of magnesium, which is manifested by a decrease in body weight, muscle spasms and convulsions. The daily requirement of an adult in magnesium is about 400 mg.

Calcium and phosphorus

In a day, a person needs 800 mg of calcium, which is one of the basic minerals. Calcium is found in dairy products, vegetables and wholemeal with bran. With calcium deficiency, there is a softening of the bone tissue and fragility of the teeth. In addition, from the lack of calcium, muscles and nerves suffer. To prevent calcium deficiency, milk and dairy products must be consumed daily. Per day, the body should receive up to 1200 mg of phosphorus. It is necessary for the formation of bones, normal growth and functioning of the nervous system.


A large amount of iron is found in meat, coarse flour with bran, vegetables, fruits of legumes. The daily requirement for iron in men is about 12 mg, in women about 18 mg. With iron deficiency in the body, ripening of erythrocytes and menstrual cycle is violated, anemia is manifested. For better assimilation of iron, you need to eat foods that contain a large amount of vitamin C.


The need for an organism in iodine is low - in a day an adult should use only 0.15-0.2 mg of iodine. A rich source of iodine is sea fish, milk and dairy products. Deficiency of iodine leads to disruption of the formation of thyroid hormones, it is also possible to form goiter.


Zinc participates in more than 200 metabolic reactions of the human body, while its daily rate is only 15 mg. A large amount of zinc is found in the liver, coarse flour with bran, fruits of leguminous plants, milk and dairy products, vegetables. Even with an insignificant zinc deficiency, growth is disrupted, body weight decreases, immunity weakens, hair falls out. Suction from the intestine of zinc promotes the use of foods high in protein.


1. Acromegaly
2. Albinism
4. Cretinism
5. Disturbances of fat metabolism