Salmonellosis is an infectious disease caused by salmonella. The causative agent is a large group of salmonella, numbering more than 2000 serotypes. Salmonella is also caused by typhoid and paratyphoid fever. In Eastern Europe, the most common gastroenteritis is an inflammatory disease of the stomach and intestines, in which pathogens do not enter the bloodstream. Less often there is a septic form of salmonellosis, in which pathogens from the intestine enter the blood and various organs, after which foci of purulent lesion are formed.
Symptoms of gastroenteritis:
- Vomiting, diarrhea.
- Slight temperature increase.
- Lethargy, exhaustion.
Symptoms of sepsis:
- Vomiting, diarrhea.
The disease begins acutely, 14-18 hours after the intake of salmonella-contaminated food: nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, liquid copious stool. Usually the temperature rises slightly. If vomiting and diarrhea persist and continue to increase dehydration, it can lead to excise. There is dryness in the mouth, the tongue is covered with plaque, the skin, gathered in folds, is straightened with difficulty. Blood thickens, blood clots are possible. In the presence of timely treatment of salmonellosis 2-3 days later, and at the latest after two weeks, diarrhea passes. Vomiting and fever usually stop earlier. Patients soon recover.
When the septic form of salmonellosis pus from the intestinal mucosa very quickly enters the patient's blood. Inflammation spreads throughout the body. As a rule, the bones, the meninges, the lungs and the pericardium are affected. In patients there is a fever, chills. As a result of blood circulation disorders, death may occur.
The main way of infection is alimentary, due to the consumption of water and food products, which contain a large number of salmonella. Usually this is observed with improper cooking. Less often, salmonella infection occurs when you are in direct contact with a sick person or animal. The main symptoms of salmonellosis - vomiting, diarrhea, exhaustion of the body.
At the initial stage of the disease, the patient should not eat anything, but he must consume a lot of liquid. With severe vomiting and diarrhea, the deficiency of fluid and electrolytes must be compensated for by intravenous fluids. The septic form of the disease is treated with antibiotics. With gastroenteritis caused by salmonella, antibiotics should not be prescribed.
Each time after bowel movement, patients should clean and disinfect the toilet bowl. Hands should be washed with warm water and soap. In addition, strict adherence to the rules for the storage and preparation of products is necessary.
When the temperature rises, frequent vomiting, a stiff liquid stool and a worsening of the general state of health, you should consult a doctor.
Gastroenteritis is diagnosed on the basis of bacteriological analysis of stool, vomit and gastric washings. If there is a suspicion of septic salmonellosis, blood is taken for serological examination.
All cases of salmonellosis should be reported to the competent medical authorities.
- Especially dangerous are those products in which the rapid reproduction of Salmonella can occur, this is facilitated by improper storage of food products.
- Some microbes reproduce at a temperature of 4-5 ° C, so food products after storage in the refrigerator must be heat treated.
- Kitchen implements must be kept in exemplary purity.