Tick-borne encephalitis is an infectious disease of the brain. At the same time, the brain envelope can occur - meningoencephalitis. This disease is caused by viruses that usually enter the human body when bitten by a tick. However, you can get infected with unpasteurized cow, goat or sheep milk. In some countries, including in Central Europe, quite a lot of ticks are carriers of this infection. In many people, this infectious disease is asymptomatic. Such people in the future remain immune to this disease. As a rule, people of 30-40 years are more often tick-borne encephalitis. Children carry the infection easier. The older the person, the more difficult the disease - sometimes paralysis and mental disorders are possible.
The first stage:
- Temperature increase.
- Headache, as well as pain in the limbs and lower back.
- Violation of the functions of the stomach and intestines.
The second stage:
- Heat, trembling, convulsions.
- Rigidity of neck muscles.
- Nausea, vomiting.
- Disorders of the psyche.
Causes of the disease
Usually the virus of meningoencephalitis enters the human body with a tick bite (Latin ixodes ricinus). These mites live in sunny places of wooded area, among grass and low shrubs. To survive the virus, it is necessary that air and soil are wet, and the temperature does not fall below + 10 ° C for 150 days. Usually ticks dig into the scalp, palms, ears, feet and underarms. Depending on the prevalence of encephalitic mites, the incidence of infection can be single or acquire the nature of an epidemic.
Patients infected with tick-borne encephalitis need hospitalization and adherence to bed rest for at least 10 days. Treatment is not aimed at eliminating the causes, but at alleviating the symptoms of the disease.
If the temperature rises, vomiting, headache, pain in the lower back or limbs, and with rigidity of the neck muscles, you should consult a doctor.
The doctor will examine the patient, perform the necessary studies to determine the pathogens and the antibodies formed in the body.
Course of the disease
There are two stages of meningoencephalitis: spring and summer. At the first stage, the body temperature rises, headaches and pains in the extremities, nausea and vomiting, inflammation begin. This is a disease for 2/3 of the patients ends, many even do not realize that they have had this disease. In other patients, after 1-20 days, when the primary symptoms pass, the second stage of the disease is manifested, the heavier one. It is characterized by: high fever, tremors, paralysis, convulsions, impaired consciousness and psyche. The course of the disease depends on the location of the viruses, on the severity of the disease and on the immunity of the infected.
Prognosis and prevention
Usually tick-borne encephalitis is completely cured. However, full recovery may take a long time. Paralysis disappears gradually, for some time headaches may repeat. Only in rare cases, patients die.
If you are going to spend a vacation in nature, find out if there are encephalitis ticks in these places. If necessary, vaccinate.
Avoid deciduous forests, places covered with tall grass and shrubs. The attached mite should be removed immediately. If you suspect encephalitis, get tested and vaccinated.