Typhus is a dangerous infectious disease. In addition to the severe form of the disease, in which the mortality is 10-20%, there is a lighter form - the so-called. Endemic typhus spreading through a limited geographical area. After the transfer of this disease, serious residual effects often appear, for example, epilepsy, spastic paralysis or deafness. Carriers of epidemic typhus are carriers of lice, and endemic - mites, fleas, rats. Today, due to non-compliance with basic hygiene rules, the occurrence of this infection is more common only in some countries of Asia and Africa.
- Skin rash is purplish-bluish.
- A sharp increase in body temperature.
- Violation of blood circulation, swelling of the face.
- Violation of consciousness.
10-14 days after infection, the patient has headaches and pains in the limbs, a sharp increase in body temperature (up to 39 ° C), chills, worsening of the general condition. Often these symptoms are accompanied by severe bronchitis, myocarditis, circulatory insufficiency, swelling and redness of the face. After 2-4 days, the body temperature rises, then a characteristic rash appears - the whole body is covered with crimson bluish spots. In uncomplicated cases at this stage of the disease, the patient's condition may spontaneously improve. In severe cases, the brain is affected - consciousness is disturbed, delirium, paralysis and convulsions are manifested. Often after this, death occurs. If the patient does not die at this stage of the disease, then approximately 2 weeks later, the body temperature begins to fall. Possible repeated infections of typhus after a year and a half and at a later date after the previous illness.
Causes of the disease
Typhus fever causes rickettsia (the smallest bacteria). The main carriers of bacteria are rodents. Rickettsia live in the intestines of carriers. The transmission of bacteria occurs when the feces of the vectors are bitten and hit on the human skin. The entrance gates of infection are minor skin lesions, through which rickettsia enters the bloodstream. By the way, this disease can be infected and with the use of infected food. Most often, rickettsia affects blood vessels, internal organs and nervous tissue.
Rickettsia is affected by antibiotics (for example, tetracycline). It is very important to treat various symptoms caused by infection. First of all, it is necessary to maintain normal blood circulation, observe the rules of oral hygiene - regular mouth rinses will help to avoid painful inflammation of the gums and parotid glands.
The main means of preventing this disease is vaccination. When infecting persons vaccinated against typhus, the disease manifests itself in a relatively mild form and lasts only a few days. However, even after vaccination, you must follow all the rules of personal hygiene, only in this way can reduce the likelihood of infection.
After visiting countries with a high incidence of typhus (Latin America, Africa, Asia, southern Europe, Australia), with fatigue, exhaustion, headaches, pain in the extremities, a sharp rise in temperature, chills, rapid heartbeats, .
In order to make a diagnosis, a blood sample is taken, which is checked in the laboratory for the presence of pathogens. When the diagnosis is confirmed, the patient is sent to an infectious disease hospital.
Do not visit countries where the typhus epidemic is rampant. Whether the trip is combined with the risk of infection, you can find out in the travel agency and the Ministry of Health. For 3 months before the trip, you need to get an inoculation against typhus.