Typhoid fever

Medicine1

Typhoid fever is an acute infectious bowel disease. About the cases of the disease, the relevant medical institutions are compulsorily informed. The disease begins with a general malaise, headache, insomnia, apathy, loss of appetite, constipation and fever. During the second week the symptoms increase. The tongue becomes bloated, the temperature rises to 40 ° C, diarrhea appears. On the skin there is a characteristic rash in the form of small pink spots. The patient develops a disorder of consciousness with alternating delusional state. Earlier typhoid fever was called "nervous fever".

Symptoms

Initial stage:

  • Fatigability. Headache.
  • Lack of appetite.
  • Apathy. Constipation.
  • Bleeding from the nose.
  • Increased body temperature.

Acute stage:

  • Fever.
  • Plaque in the language.
  • Roseoosle rash, protruding on the abdomen, chest, sides.
  • Drowsiness.
  • Diarrhea.

From the time of infection with typhus to a fever, it takes about two weeks. The first symptoms are headache, general weakness, loss of appetite, chills. After 9-11 days on the abdomen and chest there is a rash in the form of small pink spots the size of a pinhead. Pulse is rare. In the absence of complications, patients recover within 3-5 weeks. Usually, people who have had typhus, significantly reduced body weight. With repeated infection, the disease proceeds in a lighter form. If the course of the disease is extremely difficult, it can lead to the death of the patient. The cause of death is usually circulatory insufficiency and peritonitis. Pathogens most affect the lungs, kidney pelvis, middle ear, pancreas, bone marrow, bladder, testicles and spine.

Causes of the disease

The causative agent of the disease is the bacterium Salmonella typhi. It is fairly persistent, retains viability in the aquatic environment for 3-4 months, reproduces well in milk and dairy products, dies under the influence of high temperatures and disinfectants. Sources of infection are bacterial carriers and sick people. The path of infection is fecal-oral, it is possible to transmit the infection through unwashed fruits and vegetables, water. Bacteria that cause pathology penetrate the mucosa of the lower intestine and multiply there. Then with blood they enter other organs and begin to produce a strong poison, which causes severe damage to the internal organs.

Treatment

Typhoid fever is treated with antibiotics (chloramphenicol). The patient needs careful care and treatment of the common symptoms of the disease. It is necessary to ensure the normal functioning of the heart and blood vessels. In all cases, the patient should be isolated.

When should I see a doctor? The doctor should be consulted immediately after the appearance of the first symptoms of typhoid fever, as well as if there is a suspicion of an infection.

The doctor will examine the patient, assess the symptoms of the disease, in order to clarify the diagnosis will make a blood test and perform other studies.

This is a dangerous disease. Earlier mortality among patients with typhoid fever was 10-30%. Today, thanks to the antibiotic chloramphenicol, it decreased to 1-2%.

Prevention

Effective means of prevention - vaccination. The vaccine can be intravenous or oral. Vaccinations retain a protective effect for about a year. Vaccination against typhus is recommended before visiting southern or tropical countries. It is important to follow the rules of personal hygiene. It is not recommended to drink unboiled water. The patient must be isolated and disinfected. Patients are strictly forbidden to work with food, as well as in kindergartens and schools. A person is considered healthy if three crops on the typhoid bacteria gave a negative result. It is very important to establish the source of infection.

 

Related:
1. Leprosy
2. Erysipelas
3. Salmonellosis
4. anthrax
5. Syphilis