Viruses are the most primitive form of life, the smallest pathogens of infectious diseases. They are smaller than bacteria and multiply only in the living cells of the owner. Penetrating into the cell of the body, the viruses transmit her hereditary information and "force" to develop new pathogens. As a rule, infection with viral agents occurs when they get on the mucous membrane. Some viruses can be infected only if they penetrate directly into the blood. Viruses can be grouped by the disease being excited, the geographical regions in which they cause the disease, the terrain in which they were first discovered.
What are the viral diseases?
The main feature of viruses is their peculiar structure. They have heredity, which is due to the same structures as other living organisms - nucleic acids. Most viral diseases are acute respiratory viral infections and intestinal catarrh.
There are infections that affect the nervous system, for example, viruses of poliomyelitis, rabies, tick-borne encephalitis. Some infections contribute to the development of skin diseases, for example, pemphigus, the formation of warts, damage to internal organs, for example, the liver in viral hepatitis, the walls of blood vessels. AIDS, rabies and almost vanished smallpox also belong to viral diseases.
Can I get vaccinated?
To prevent some viral infections, active immunization is carried out:
- Hepatitis B.
- Tick-borne encephalitis.
- Yellow fever.
- Measles, mumps, rubella.
Eliminate viruses is almost impossible, so most often measures are taken to alleviate the symptoms of the disease or strengthen immunity. If rotavirus infection is accompanied by vomiting and diarrhea, it is possible that this is not a viral infection, but some other disease.
Antibiotics in the fight against viruses are powerless. One of the ways of effective protection is vaccination - the introduction of weakened pathogens into the body, for the neutralization of which the immune system begins to produce antibodies. With passive immunization, antibodies derived from human or animal blood are injected.
The incubation period is from several days to several years. Due to the fact that the body's immune system is able to recognize most of the once-defeated viruses, a person acquires lifelong immunity to the corresponding causative agents of the disease. With the flu, the situation is different. His agents, acquiring new properties, mutate, and thus "outmaneuver" the human immune system.
The only way to protect against a viral infection is tempering. Best bath, outdoor exercise and proper nutrition.
Along with hygienic measures, for example, isolation (in the event that the disease is contagious), active and passive immunizations are possible.