What is acute renal failure?
The human kidney secrete about 1500 ml of urine during the day, which is excreted through the urinary tract. The substances in the urine can be removed from the body only in this way. Urea is the final product of protein metabolism; Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism; Creatinine is one of the natural metabolites formed in muscles from creatine and creatine phosphate. If, due to various reasons, there is a violation of urine output, the nitrogen-containing substances that are formed are not eliminated from the body. If this disorder occurs suddenly, it is called acute renal failure.
Symptoms of acute renal failure
- A strong decrease in the amount of urine or lack of it.
- Violation of the psyche (anxiety, fear).
- Deterioration of general well-being.
Causes of acute renal failure
The causes of acute renal failure are varied, for example:
- Disturbance of blood circulation due to lower blood pressure. Blood pressure may decrease with a large loss of blood (for example, with trauma); Dehydration of the body caused by severe vomiting or diarrhea; The presence of burns and lesions of large areas of skin; Acute inflammation of the pancreas. All of the above reasons in 80% of cases are manifested by acute renal failure.
- Poisoning is also the cause of kidney failure. Poisoning can cause exogenous toxins that have got from externally into the human body, as well as endotoxins formed in the body itself. Exogenous toxins are chemicals (glycol compounds, E605, methanol, phosphorus, heavy metals). In addition, mention should be made of such drugs as barbiturates, antibiotics and sublimates. Endogenous toxins are formed after an injury or muscle disease, accompanied by the destruction of muscle tissue, the splitting of erythrocytes (red blood cells), bacterial toxins are secreted bacteria. When poisoning with carbon monoxide, the human body itself produces substances that can cause renal failure.
Treatment of acute renal failure
First of all, it is necessary to treat the cause that caused acute renal failure. It is required to conduct hemodialysis to remove blood products of vital activity or poisonous substances from the blood.
Self-medication should not be dealt with.
The doctor will perform various tests of blood and urine, as well as determine the cause of kidney failure and prescribe treatment. Usually, hemodialysis is performed.
Course of the disease
The course of acute renal failure does not depend on the cause that caused it and in many cases proceeds as follows:
- The first stage is that there are no obvious symptoms of kidney damage. Symptoms of a major illness or poisoning are manifested: general weakness, vomiting, cough, back pain, chills, fever, facial skin has a reddish or cyanotic tinge.
- The second stage (9-11 days) - significantly reduces the volume of the waste urine. When analyzing the blood, the presence of an excessive content of substances excreted in the urine is detected. The body accumulates liquid, the exchange of potassium and sodium is disrupted.
- The third stage (2-3 weeks) - the gradual recovery of kidney function begins, the patient slowly recovers. First, a large amount of urine is released (up to 4-6 liters per day), then the selection is normalized. At this stage, the patient is susceptible to various infectious diseases, the body lacks salts.
- The fourth stage (from several weeks to several months) - the function of the kidneys is completely normalized. The amount of urine and substances released from it is normalized.
With timely treatment, many patients recover. However, about 60-70% of patients with renal insufficiency die from complications, for example, uremia, pulmonary dysfunction or from burns, which are the cause of worsening of blood supply to the kidneys.