Chronic Renal Failure

Medicine2


What is chronic renal failure?

Chronic kidney failure usually develops due to a gradual decrease in kidney function. Often patients do not immediately notice the weakening of kidney function, because the symptoms of the disease for a long time are either absent or mild. Symptoms of beginning chronic renal failure may be as follows: increased thirst, frequent urge to urinate, pallor of the skin, rapid fatigue, impaired appetite, vomiting. Later, there are more serious symptoms: shortness of breath, diarrhea, anemia, edema of the digestive tract and genital organs, neuropathy, impotence and even a coma, dangerous for the patient's life. All these symptoms occur when the water-salt balance is violated and the urea concentration in the blood increases.

Symptoms of chronic kidney failure

  • Strong thirst, pallor.
  • Frequent urination.
  • Shortness of breath, vomiting.
  • Lesions of nerves.
  • Impotence.
  • Impaired orientation, coma.

Causes of chronic renal failure

The causes of chronic kidney failure may be different. In about 50% of cases, chronic renal failure is due to inflammation of the glomerulus (glomerulonephritis). Glomerulonephritis refers to autoimmune diseases. This form of inflammation of the kidneys can be a complication, for example, scarlet fever. The second most frequent cause of chronic kidney failure is the urinary tract infection, which also encompasses the kidneys, called pyelonephritis (inflammation of the renal pelvis). The cause of pyelonephritis is usually kidney stones. When a stone gets stuck in the ureter, the outflow of urine slows and a Hydronephrosis, which can also cause chronic renal failure.

The cause of kidney failure may also be a large group of diseases that result in damage to the blood vessels of the kidneys (for example, diabetes mellitus). There are other, extremely rare causes, for example, kidney polycystosis, which disrupts kidney function.

Treatment of chronic renal failure

First of all, it is necessary to restore the water-salt balance. If the disease does not go too far, then the kidney function can be restored with the help of diuretics (diuretics) and a special diet. When the patient is in serious condition, hemodialysis is indicated. A human is connected to an artificial kidney apparatus that purifies the blood from urea. If it is not possible to cure the underlying disease, then hemodialysis must be repeated 2-3 times a week throughout the life of the patient. After a successful kidney transplant, hemodialysis can be canceled.

When the first symptoms that are characteristic of chronic renal failure occur, it is necessary to see a doctor as soon as possible.

Course of the disease

Often chronic renal failure progresses, so in severe cases, the patient can only benefit from a kidney transplant. However, when using this method, complications are also possible, for example, the body can reject an alien kidney, and then the patient again becomes dependent on hemodialysis.

 

Related:
1. Интерстициальный нефрит
2. Acute Renal Failure
3. Polycystic kidney disease
4. Kidney stone disease
5. Inflammation of renal pelvis