The pituitary gland is located at the base of the brain, in the cranial fossa. A thin canal connects it to the brain. The pituitary gland produces proteins and hormones that regulate the metabolism and activity of the glands that produce other hormones. Tumors can form both in the gland itself, and next to it. Usually these are benign tumors, but they can cause disturbances in hormonal metabolism, which in turn cause various pathological changes. The most common symptoms of such a tumor in men - a violation of sexual potency and growth, in women - a violation of the menstrual cycle.
- Absence of monthly.
- Whitish discharge from the nipples.
- In adults, acromegaly.
- Hemianopsia (loss of one half of the field of view in each eye).
- Children and young people have gigantism.
Pituitary tumors occur in people aged 30-60 years. However, they can develop in children. To date, the causes of tumors of the pituitary gland to the end are not known.
Usually treatment is prompt. At the heart of the operation is the removal of a part of the pituitary gland and the preservation of at least some of the functions of this gland. If complications occur, then radiation therapy is used.
With a pituitary tumor, self-healing is not possible. Women should consult a doctor if the menstrual cycle is abnormal or if there is no complete menstruation, and men are in violation of their sexual potency.
In addition to anamnesis and examination of the body, the following research methods are used: X-ray of the skull (examination of the skull by X-rays) and tomography of the brain. In some cases, the hormone metabolism parameters are studied, which allows obtaining information on the activity of the gland and its effect on organs.
Course of the disease
In women, as a rule, there is a violation of the menstrual cycle, in men - sexual desire and potency. Both women and men have a whitish, watery secret from the mammary glands. Symptoms at a later stage of the disease are headache, visual disturbances. If the presence of a tumor affects the function of the adrenal glands, then in this case (depending on the severity of the disease), a sharp increase in body weight occurs in a person. In addition, blood pressure rises, osteoporosis and abnormal muscle changes are observed. There may also be a disruption in growth: for children, the development of gigantism is characteristic, for adults - acromegaly (progressive enlargement of the size of the hands, feet, lower jaw). All these changes are due to an excess of so-called. Growth hormone (growth hormone).
In the world there are very few cases of malignant tumors of the pituitary gland. However, benign neoplasms are no less dangerous. They can have a negative effect on the activity of the pituitary gland, thereby causing a violation of the functions of other organs, which in turn can endanger the patient's life.