Sinusitis is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses - airway cavities in the facial bones of the skull. These cavities lining the mucous membrane, covered with ciliated epithelium and cilia. In the paranasal sinuses there are holes that they communicate with the nasal cavity. If these holes are blocked, for example, with a cold, then the bacteria in the paranasal sinuses begin to multiply. So there is a sinusitis.
Sinusitis can be acute, catarrhal, purulent and chronic. Adults suffer this pathology more often than children (children under 5 years are seldom sick, since they have no paranasal sinuses). The most common symptoms of sinusitis are pain in the forehead or cheek area, as well as a very severe headache. Often there are yellowish discharge from the nose, in addition, there are other symptoms, such as fatigue, pain with chewing, and lack of appetite.
- Pain in forehead and (or) cheek.
- Purulent cold.
- Pain when chewing.
- A fever is possible.
Symptoms appear almost immediately after a cold. The patient experiences pain when chewing, his sense of smell is reduced, he feels tired, drowsy. Sometimes there is chills and fever. Symptoms of the disease disappear after a few days after the beginning of the use of vasoconstrictive drops and the intake of antibiotics.
Inflammation of the paranasal sinuses develops as a consequence of the common cold. Acute sinusitis can occur during an acute cold, flu, scarlet fever and other infectious diseases. Chronic sinusitis can be caused by high virulence of microbes. Sinusitis is caused by bacteria that begin to multiply in the corresponding paranasal sinus. Reproduction is facilitated by blocked openings of the paranasal sinuses. Other possible causes of sinusitis are inflammation of the root of the tooth located in the upper jaw, covering the paranasal sinus, as well as severe sinus damage.
At treatment of an inflammation application of antibiotics is enough. However, if more serious symptoms of the disease occur or when it progresses, surgical intervention is indicated.
You can use vasoconstrictive drops in the nose or aerosol, but only for some time (4-5 days), since the abuse of these medicines leads to irritation of the mucosa. In the treatment of sinusitis, physiotherapeutic procedures are also recommended (heating with a blue lamp, inhalation).
If the funds used at home do not help, you need to consult an otolaryngologist.
If it is not entirely clear whether this is an inflammation of the paranasal sinuses, the doctor will send an x-ray of the sinuses. When the diagnosis is confirmed, he will prescribe antibiotics. If treatment of inflammation with conventional means is unsuccessful, the patient may have to operate (the affected area of the mucous membrane is removed).
The lack of treatment can lead to increased infection and its spread to the brain (and especially into its membranes).
Treatment of acute and chronic sinusitis lasts at least 10-13 days. Do not interrupt the use of drugs earlier than was provided, since not all pathogens will be destroyed and strains of bacteria that are insensitive to antibiotics can form.