Defects in speech are incorrect pronunciation due to violation of the speech apparatus. These defects include stammering, lisping, cartilage. Adult speech defects are usually the result of injuries, surgeries or severe emotional shocks (eg, loss of a loved one, divorce). Thus, a speech defect can arise as a result of traumas of the main organs of speech: the vocal cords, the muscles of the larynx, the sky, the tongue, lips and teeth, and also when the center of speech in the cerebral cortex is damaged. A strong constant emotional stress can cause a violation of pronunciation of sounds.
The speech of the person most intensively develops on 2-5 year of a life. Up to three years the child is able to correctly pronounce 30-700 words, on the third goal of life he begins to speak with complex sentences. In 4 years, the child's vocabulary is about 1500 words. The development of speech depends on internal and external factors. Children imitate their parents, adopt their manner of speaking. Many different organs participate in the process of speaking: the centers of the brain (for example, speech) and the nerve pathways emerging from it, the muscles of the face and tongue, as well as the respiratory muscles. Normal speech means a clear and precise pronunciation of each letter. Speech should be rhythmic, smooth. When it is illegible, indistinct and incomprehensible, then in this case they speak of a speech violation. There are many different defects in speech, for example, the inability to correctly pronounce certain letters, stuttering, dumbness.
- Paralalia - the usual wrong pronunciation of sounds during speaking.
- Inability to correctly pronounce certain sounds.
- Recently suffered fright, emotional shock, trauma, accident.
Causes of speech defects
During the reproduction of speech, many organs participate. Disturbances and speech defects can occur due to congenital anomalies, for example, non-exfoliation of the upper lip, hard and soft palate, malocclusion, deafness, jawbones, teeth, tongue and lips ("hare lip"), and muscle diseases. Similar violations occur in mental illnesses, diseases of the nervous system. They can also be a consequence of diseases of the speech apparatus or nose.
Speech defects occur in diseases of the lips, tongue and larynx, as well as due to surgery on these organs or in violation of the functions of the muscles of the palate and nasopharynx. In the presence of rare teeth, a person can not correctly pronounce consonant sounds. Speech is indistinct and in people with very crooked teeth, teeth of different sizes, irregular jaw structure. Sudden loss of ability to speak (aphasia) is observed in diseases or brain damage. Sometimes there is a dysarthria - a violation of pronunciation. Violations of speech can be temporary, because of the damage to the centers of the brain.
Dysphasia is the common name for all kinds of speech disorders of any origin. Rinolalia - violation of the voice and sound, caused by defects in the speech apparatus.
Damage to the main speech organs
If the speech disorder occurs as a result of a trauma or an accident, the patient, first of all, is treated in a hospital, then the doctor sends the patient to a special rehabilitation clinic. During rehabilitation, the treatment of the received trauma continues, the speech therapist comes to the rescue, the patient learns to speak correctly again. In this case, the personal initiative of the person is extremely important. The rehabilitation center should ask about the possibility of participating in therapy of speech and breathing.
After rehabilitation, the patient must continue to treat the consequences of injury at home. An experienced speech therapist should take part in the treatment. In addition, the patient is recommended to master several exercises for relaxation.
A person with a speech defect should do everything possible to restore correct pronunciation, and not fall into depression. Be sure to consult a general practitioner or an otolaryngologist and together draw up a plan for further rehabilitation, then it is recommended to undergo a course of speech therapy with a speech therapist. The doctor can recommend a speech therapist or another specialist.
If speech defects are due to psychological problems, then in this case, not only a speech therapist, but also a psychologist or a psychotherapist, as well as a group or individual therapy, is needed.
There are special centers that offer the services of a lawyer, counseling of a psychologist, speech therapist, social worker, arrange contacts with other families, self-help groups and psychotherapy, and engage in daytime employment centers.
Correcting speech defects
The causes of speech disorders are diverse, and the methods of their treatment are equally diverse. It is very important to establish the true cause and treat the underlying illness that caused the pronunciation problems. If, after curing the disease, normal speech is not restored, then breathing or speech therapy is used. The latter is prescribed after trauma, stroke or surgery, as a result of which the patient has a speech disorder. Anomalies of occlusion are corrected by means of plates and other methods of restoring the correct form of jaws. Often the jaws have to operate, implant artificial teeth or put dental crowns. The operation is also indicated in case of a cancerous tumor, polyps, curvature of the nasal septum or "wolf mouth". After surgery on the patient's larynx, they are taught to speak anew, teaching the so-called esophageal speech.
A person with a violation of speech function should not avoid people. The fear that others will not understand and will laugh is often unreasonable. It is necessary to communicate as much as possible with people and constantly improve their pronunciation. A person who avoids communication can get a serious mental illness.
Violation of speech is not a life-threatening disease, but it can affect a person's daily life. Because of a strong experience about the speech defect, a person may develop depression or other diseases. Therefore, speech disorders must be treated. First of all, the patient should consult an otolaryngologist. Often in the elimination of speech disorders helps the dentist or orthodontist. If you suspect a nervous illness, you need to contact a neurologist.
You can not laugh at the child's vague speech, tk. This can lead to the development of neurosis or other psychological disorders. If you have problems with pronunciation of sounds, you should consult your doctor.
Employees of various speech therapy centers and centers providing services to psychologists, speech therapists, help parents understand the problems of the child, advise on the issues of speech development and the level of readiness of children for school, conduct classes with children and adults to improve diction and speech techniques. The consultation includes a full examination by specialists and the selection of an individual correctional program. Consultations and corrective sessions of speech therapists spend in the centers or speech therapists go to the house. Qualified correction of deviations in verbal and mental development of pupils is carried out in specialized kindergartens, children are trained for school, develop their cognitive abilities.