Usually, children start talking after reaching about one year. Girls start talking before boys. The correct pronunciation of complex words children master about the fourth year of life.
Speech is an extremely complex process in which various organs of the speech apparatus participate. An exact interaction of the lungs, larynx, muscles of the tongue and lips should be ensured.
Symptoms of speech disorders
- Wrong pronunciation of words.
- The child does not shout, does not pronounce some letters and sounds.
- Pain when pronouncing words.
- A child older than 5 years does not yet say.
Causes of speech disorders
The speech of a person can be disturbed due to congenital anomalies of the larynx, tongue, jaws, palate or lips (hare lip). Often as a result of mental disorders, the child does not learn speech or speaks with difficulty (adults can also suddenly lose their previously acquired speech skills). There are cases when speech does not develop due to lack of communication during the period of its formation or social isolation of the child. The causes of speech disorders can be congenital and acquired organic diseases. The speech centers of the brain are often affected (for example, as a result of craniocerebral trauma or inflammation of the brain). The speech of adults is partially or completely violated due to accidents or illnesses. One of the main reasons is a stroke. If the functions of certain centers of the brain are disturbed or if some cranial nerves are damaged, the facial, linguistic, and laryngeal muscles may be paralyzed. Speech disorders can occur with tumors of the brain, larynx or mouth and pharynx.
When should I see a doctor?
With regular preventive examinations, speech disorders are quickly identified. If the development of speech lags behind the average level of development for more than six months, then it is necessary to consult a doctor. Adults, noticing that when a conversation begins to make mistakes or suddenly can not accurately pronounce a particular sound, should also consult a doctor.
Treatment of speech disorders
Depending on the cause, there are various ways of eliminating speech disorders and methods of re-learning speech skills. In the course of timely treatment (phonopedia and speech therapy) it is usually possible to positively influence the course of the majority of speech disorders. In this case, the patient learns to speak under the guidance of a speech therapist or a phonopede.
Feel a speech
The processes occurring when the sounds are pronounced are not visible. Therefore, the patient puts his hand to the neck of the speech therapist and feels how the voice of the speech sounds when the larynx starts moving and what vibration is felt at the same time. With the palm of the other hand, the patient at the same time feels his larynx and checks whether its movements are correct.
Speech without larynx
Talk can and patients who have been removed larynx or part of it. They must learn the so-called. Esophageal voice or use a kind of amplifier. Without the larynx, the words can be pronounced with the mouth, teeth and tongue, but in this case no sound is heard. A special adaptation (laryngophone) reinforces these silent words, and others can understand them. True, this kind of human speech resembles "robot speech". When recovering a voice function by switching to an esophageal voice, the patient learns to swallow air (as well as when learning the art of ventriloquism). Then it controls its output and thus forms understandable words.
Exercises to eliminate speech defects
Use breathing exercises, relaxation exercises, singing and role playing. Often several treatment methods are used simultaneously. Even people of old age can learn to speak correctly again.