What is edema?
As a result of various disorders of the body's functions, fluid from the blood and lymph vessels can enter the surrounding tissues. Most of this liquid is water, but it also contains a small amount of proteins and other substances. Accumulation of excess fluid in tissues is called edema, or edema. The swelling of the tissues resulting from swelling can be local, as for example in trauma or inflammation, or generalized, which is observed with cardiac or renal insufficiency.
Swelling of the soft tissues can appear in any part of the human body. The accumulation of fluid often occurs in the skin, mucous membranes or connective tissue of the body, such swelling is usually painless. Edema can also appear in various cavities and organs of the human body. Especially dangerous are edemas of vital organs, for example, lungs, brain, etc. (due to violation of their functions).
Causes of edema
Soft tissue swelling may occur as a result of mechanical irritations, for example, post-traumatic swelling of the tissues. However, in most cases, the cause of their appearance is a violation of the water-salt balance in the body. For example, if the blood lacks certain salts or proteins, its chemical properties change. Of course, from the arterial capillaries formed tissue fluid still nourishes the tissue, but in the venous capillaries this liquid can not be resorbed. The lymphatic system also does not provide sufficient outflow of tissue fluid from the tissues. In addition to severe organic lesions, edema of the eyelid skin and thighs appear.
In our region, the causes of such edema are only in rare cases, malnutrition, more often - various violations of the liver and kidneys. In women, edema sometimes occurs due to a violation of hormonal metabolism. The main cause of edema of soft tissues is a violation of blood flow as a result of heart failure, heart attacks and changes in the circulatory system (eg, inflammation or varicose veins). In this case, the veins of the lower extremities do not flow well enough towards the heart, as a result, fluid accumulates in the legs, causing them to swell. If the finger on the swollen tissue in this place for a long time does not disappear fossa - this is a characteristic symptom of edema. Almost 80% of women suffer from this disease. An immediate danger to the life of the patient arises if, as a result of heart failure, pulmonary edema occurs that impedes breathing. Immediate treatment is necessary with fluid accumulation in the abdominal cavity (possible causes: hepatic, pulmonary and renal failure).
Treatment of edema
First of all, X-rays, auscultation, palpation of the patient are performed and his anamnesis of the disease is assessed. The doctor establishes a primary diagnosis, for clarification of which blood and urine tests are performed.
How to help yourself? The main means of protecting against edema associated with cardiovascular disorders is regular exercise, exercise and a healthy lifestyle. In the conduct of a healthy lifestyle, the risk of hepatic and renal insufficiency is reduced. However, it is impossible to completely avoid edema.
When should I see a doctor? Patients with impaired function of the heart and other organs are usually under the constant supervision of doctors. However, the doctor should be consulted when there is shortness of breath, severe weakness or with significant swelling of the lower extremities.
The main measure for first aid is the removal of excess fluid from the body. Usually, diuretics are prescribed. First of all, it is necessary to diagnose and treat the underlying disease.
Because of allergies, Quincke's edema may occur - it is a sudden swelling of the skin, subcutaneous tissue and mucous membrane. Appears more often on the face. Holds up to several days. When the mucous membranes of the oral cavity and the larynx are affected, respiration may be impaired.
Patients with predisposition to edema should limit the use of salt. Salt retains fluid in the body, resulting in increased risk of secondary edema.