Traumatology

HYPERTROPHY AND DYSTROPHY: Symptoms, Causes

Hypotrophy is a chronic nutritional disorder in children, manifested in weight loss, loss or insufficiency of the increase in body weight, accompanied by a number of painful disorders. It can be congenital and acquired. Congenital malnutrition is caused by maternal diseases, bad habits of pregnant women, abnormal placenta position, etc. Acquired hypotrophy is manifested when the body receives too little nutrients or is not absorbed. Alimentary dystrophy is the exhaustion of the body of children and adults, developing mainly as a result of prolonged malnutrition. The causes and mechanisms of depletion of the body during hypotrophy and alimentary dystrophy are similar. Symptoms...

Clavicle Fracture | Symptoms, causes & treatment explained

The clavicle is a small tubular bone of S-shape. It plays an important role in the device of the hand, since it is the only bone of the trunk that connects to the scapula. In case of a fracture of the clavicle, the patient can move his arm, but at the same time he experiences severe pain. Symptoms Pain when moving by hand. Inability to move a hand. Swelling in the shoulder area. Sometimes friction of fragments against each other is accompanied by a characteristic sound. This trauma occurs when falling on an elongated arm, shoulder joint or as a result of a strong impact. The patient can not raise his hand, makes sparing movements. On the site of the fracture appears swelling....

Broken Hip: Types, Causes, and Symptoms

The femur consists of two epiphyses with articular surfaces of the hip and knee joints, as well as the inner diaphysis. The neck of the thigh connects the femur with its head located in the acetabulum of the hip joint. The cervix and diaphysis of the femur form an obtuse angle, which changes with age. In addition, it is in the neck area that an intensive process of decreasing bone mass first begins. Fractures of the femoral neck, which accounts for the static load, very often occur under the influence of external factors (for example, falling, squeezing or punching). Symptoms and Causes Pain in the thigh, worse with the movements of the foot. Impossibility to stand on the damaged...

Bedsores (pressure ulcers) - Symptoms and causes

When a person, due to injury or illness, has to stay in bed for a long time or be in a wheelchair, there is always a risk of bedsores. In this case, the skin areas of the body, which account for a large load, blushes, thinens, then turns blue and even blackens. Finally, due to the necrosis of the tissues, ulcers appear on this part of the skin. Often, as a result of decubitus, severe lesions remain, sometimes under the skin and muscles, and damage to the bone. Symptoms There are four stages in the formation of pressure sores: The first stage: reddening of the skin with clear boundaries; The second stage: a strong puffiness and thickening of the skin; The third stage: muscles,...

Ligament rupture/torn muscles, partial rupture

Bundles are dense connective tissue formations of various shapes (in the form of strands or plates) that connect the bones of the skeleton and separate organs. Bunches strengthen joints, limit or direct movements in them, provide contact of articular surfaces. Depending on the function performed, the ligaments are divided into support, guide and braking. Some ligaments, for example, the knee or ankle, are under immense strain, due to uncontrolled movements (for example, a sudden drop), their tension or rupture may occur. It is possible as a rupture of the ligament itself, and its detachment from the bone. In the latter case, the bone fragment often also detaches. The ruptured ligament is...