Uremia (self-poisoning by urine) is not a disease, but a pathological condition caused by renal insufficiency that has arisen due to a number of reasons. Chronic uremia develops with the accumulation of poisonous metabolic products in the body due to impaired urine output. Usually, metabolic products are excreted from the body with urine. If the kidneys are disturbed, these substances, as well as water, remain in the body. This leads to the accumulation of water in the subcutaneous tissue and the development of edema. In the blood, the content of toxic slags increases, water-salt metabolism and acid-base balance are disrupted (so-called acidosis is observed). Because of this, uraemia occurs. To normalize water-salt metabolism and acid-base balance, it is necessary to conduct hemodialysis - purification of blood with the aid of the apparatus "artificial kidney". If kidney function is not restored, kidney transplantation may be necessary.
Symptoms of uremia
- A small amount or lack of urine.
- Urine of dark color.
- High blood pressure.
- Violation of consciousness until its complete loss.
- Vomit and diarrhea mixed with blood.
Causes of uremia
Possible causes of uremia are renal failure or damage to the kidney tissue due to inflammation or the effects of poisons. In other cases, stones or kidney tumors can clog the urinary tract. Renal failure is possible after a serious operation, as a result of a shock or an accident accompanied by a large blood loss (a decrease in blood pressure also contributes to a violation of the blood supply to the kidneys, which is not restored later).
Treatment of uremia
Usually, patients with uraemia are hospitalized in the intensive care unit, because continuous monitoring of heart function, respiration, the ratio of urine output and the fluids is necessary. The acidity of blood, the concentration of electrolytes and metabolic products in the body are regularly studied. After the transferred uremia, the recovering patient has very low resistance to infections. Therefore, often during this period, he is prescribed antibiotics.
It is very important to follow the doctor's instructions without fail! The abundant drink, restriction of the use of proteins, increase in the diet of carbohydrates is shown.
When you have the first symptoms of impaired renal function, you should see a doctor.
Most likely the doctor will send the patient to the intensive care unit. With complete obstruction of the urinary tract, the patient is immediately operated. At the same time, hemodialysis is used to remove metabolic products from the blood.
Course of the disease
Usually the first symptom of uremia is a decrease in the daily amount of urine. First, the patient's face swells, and then the body - there is an excess of fluid in the body. The patient feels heaviness in the legs; Blood pressure rises. The patient's condition deteriorates sharply. The activity of the central nervous system is also disturbed, the consciousness is eclipsed, the person is asleep, convulsions begin. There is a danger of damage to vital organs.
Is uremia dangerous?
Usually, untimely treatment, the patient has serious complications. A patient who has normal kidney function recovers in about two weeks. Unfortunately, uremia is a serious and not always curable disease.