The bladder is a hollow muscular body covered with a mucous membrane and located in the cavity of the small pelvis. The bladder can hold about 700-800 ml of urine. Urine is excreted from the body by the urethra. Sometimes the solid particles contained in the urine coalesce with each other. Often at the beginning of the disease, so-called "sand" is formed - a precipitate of crystals of uric acid, which can be seen in the urine with the naked eye. So formations are formed, which are called "bladder stones". Sometimes a stone can reach the size of a chicken egg. In this case, its spontaneous excretion from the body is impossible.
Symptoms of urolithiasis
- Pain in the lower abdomen.
- Violation of urination.
- Sometimes nausea, vomiting, increased sweating or chills.
Causes of urolithiasis
The main factor that causes the formation of stones in the bladder is a metabolic disorder. If urine contains a large number of salts of uric acid and colloids, then eventually they precipitate, which gives rise to the formation of stones in the bladder. The formation of stones can also be caused by impaired urination, a prostate tumor or a diverticulum of the bladder. Sometimes stones from the kidneys through the urethra come into the bladder. Hereditary predisposition to urolithiasis also plays an important role. The development of the disease contributes and improper nutrition.
Treatment of urolithiasis
Usually in the bladder, first sand is formed, then stones appear. Large stones are not excreted in the urine, but remain in the bladder and sometimes cause severe pain (colic). In such cases, stones are removed using special means.
Medications and surgery
Sometimes stones formed in the bladder are dissolved and spontaneously removed after consuming a large amount of lemon juice or tea from linden blossoms. In addition, stones can be dissolved with medication. To remove stones, a surgical incision of the bladder wall is also performed (cystotomy).
Lithotripsy is the destruction of stones in the bladder. In extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, waves are generated by an external energy source and transferred from it to the site of the operation. A special device (lithotriptor) allows you to accurately locate the stone. Crushing occurs due to the impact on the stone of the shock wave, which is formed by a spark discharge. In this case, deformation occurs in the stone, which exceeds the strength of the stone. The stone is crushed by means of many shock waves - from 1500 to 3500 depending on the composition of the stone. Therapeutic waves penetrate the patient's body through a contact hydrosphere with a membrane and a contact gel. The main advantage of this method - the patient does not operate and often after the procedure is immediately discharged home. Fragments of stones that did not come out spontaneously, the doctor extracts from the bladder with special forceps.
Self-medication with urolithiasis is unacceptable. To avoid the formation of stones, it is recommended to drink a lot of liquid and food rich in fibrous substances, and also to lead an active lifestyle. With a balanced diet, the content of salts in the urine decreases.
If urination disorders, pain in the lumbar region (permanent or in the form of colic), which can be triggered by the presence of stones in the bladder, you should see a doctor.
In the presence of severe pain, the doctor will prescribe painkillers. He will ask the patient if pain has begun for a long time, whether they often arise, whether there are any difficulties with urination. To identify bladder stones, the doctor will take X-rays and examine the bladder with a cystoscope inserted into the urethra (perform cystoscopy). When choosing a method of treatment, the size of the stone and the physique of the patient are taken into account.