Search

ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

A sore throat

Burning of the palate and throat, pain when swallowing, a feeling of contraction of the pharynx - all this and includes a symptom of a sore throat. Pain can be caused by inflammation of the pharynx (pharyngitis), palatine tonsils (sore throat) or larynx (laryngitis). However, often a sore throat is just one of the symptoms of a disease. The throat hurts with colds, many inflammatory and infectious diseases (eg, measles, chicken pox). In addition, these diseases are characterized by an increase in the cervical lymph nodes. Sore throat can be caused not only by inflammation, but also by various traumas (for example, by stretching the ligaments of the neck), and by inhaling poisonous...

Abscess of the brain

Neurology Abscess of the brain Brain abscess is a significant accumulation of pus in the brain, which occurs again in the presence of focal infection outside the central nervous system. Perhaps the simultaneous existence of several abscesses, depending on their size and quantity, is more or less affected by the brain. Symptoms of this lesion are different, for example, paralysis, impaired sensitivity or orientation. Epilepsy may occur. In addition, there are general symptoms of the disease, for example, fever, headache, nausea and vomiting. The formation of a foci of infection is often accompanied by inflammation of the brain. Depending on the way the infection gets into the brain,...

Acromegaly

Acromegaly is an endocrine disease caused by excessive production of growth hormone, mainly in pituitary adenoma. Occurs after the growth of the body. When acromegaly disproportionately increase the limbs, face, etc., as well as some internal organs. Symptoms of acromegaly Disproportionate growth of the forehead, nose, lips, hands, jaws, feet. Impotence, a violation of sexual desire in men. Absence of menstruation in women. Headaches and pains in the limbs. Darker skin, excessive growth of hair on the body. Causes of acromegaly At the end of XIX century. The first hypothesis was that the cause of acromegaly may be pituitary disease. At present, this hypothesis is confirmed....

Actinomycosis

Actinomycosis refers to primary chronic infections caused by radiant fungi - actinomycetes. Most often these fungi affect the gums, tonsils, teeth and cause severe inflammation with the formation of dense infiltrates, which are then suppressed. When pus breaks through the skin, multiple fistulas arise. In addition, actinomycosis can affect pulmonary and intestinal tissues. Symptoms Swelling in the mucous membrane of the mouth, inflammation, the appearance of sores in the mouth. Education of abscesses. After some time through the fistula pus comes out. When the lungs are affected - chest pain and purulent sputum. When infection of the intestine - pain, vomiting, diarrhea or...

Acute abdominal pain

Pain in the abdomen is the most common malaise. Most often, the sudden pain is acute. Usually, pain occurs when the pressure in the hollow organs of the abdominal cavity increases, primarily in the intestine. Pain can occur due to the expansion of the tumor capsule and intense muscle contractions - such pain is called visceral. The usual manifestation of visceral pain is colic. In patients, the pain is felt along the midline of the abdomen, but they usually can not show the exact place of pain localization. Often, pain in the abdomen is accompanied by anxiety, vomiting and severe sweating. Unlike visceral pain, when a parietal pain occurs, a person feels a desire for absolute rest. Parietal...

Acute lymphatic leukemia

Acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by degeneration of lymphoblasts - immature blood cells that are contained in the bone marrow and thymus gland. Lymphocytes are one of the types of white blood cells that enter the bloodstream through the lymphatic vessels. In acute lymphatic leukemia, the same symptoms appear as in acute myelogenous leukemia: bleeding, pallor, fever against a background of frequent infections, enlargement of the lymph nodes and spleen. Often as a result of the CNS lesion, the patient develops headaches, vomiting, irritability. This disease can be of 4 types: about 1/4 of all patients suffer from B-cell ALL, about 20% to T-cell ALL, the rest - ALL from...

Acute myelogenous leukemia

The basis of acute myelogenous leukemia is uncontrolled proliferation of leukocytes (myeloid cells - myeloblasts, promyelocytes). The most common symptom is bleeding (nasal, internal, cutaneous) and other hemorrhagic manifestations. The person is very pale, he has a high body temperature. There are also pains in the bones, joints and limbs. Sometimes the disease develops gradually: the patient's condition worsens gradually, weakness grows, and a confusion of consciousness is noted. This pathology affects people of different ages, but most often individuals who have reached 40-50 years. Symptoms Hematomas. Pallor. Nose bleed. Increased body temperature. Sometimes pain in the bones...

Acute Renal Failure

What is acute renal failure? The human kidney secrete about 1500 ml of urine during the day, which is excreted through the urinary tract. The substances in the urine can be removed from the body only in this way. Urea is the final product of protein metabolism; Uric acid is the final product of purine metabolism; Creatinine is one of the natural metabolites formed in muscles from creatine and creatine phosphate. If, due to various reasons, there is a violation of urine output, the nitrogen-containing substances that are formed are not eliminated from the body. If this disorder occurs suddenly, it is called acute renal failure. Symptoms of acute renal failure A strong decrease in...

Acute rheumatism

Acute rheumatism is a complication of nasopharyngeal infection. This is a disease of connective tissue, characterized mainly by heart damage. Symptoms are diverse, since different organs are affected in this disease. Rheumatism can be accompanied by inflammation of the joints (polyarthritis), central nervous system (small chorea) disease, inflammation of the heart membranes (carditis, pericarditis). Often acute rheumatism affects children 6-15 years old, adults rarely get sick. Symptoms Fever. Subcutaneous nodules. Rash. Polyarthritis: pain in the joints, swelling and redness of the joints. Chorea: involuntary movements, grimaces. Carditis: heart failure, heart pain. 2-3 weeks...

Addison's disease

Addison's disease is a very rare disease characterized by inadequate secretion of corticosteroid hormones by the adrenal glands. However, when treating with hormones, the patient's condition can be stabilized, and the disease does not progress. The truth in severe cases of a patient's life can be threatened. The weakened function of the cortical layer of the adrenal glands is a violation of the function of the adrenal glands, in which a small amount of hormones are produced in the cortical layer, and adrenal insufficiency is manifested. The disease can be acute and chronic (it is the chronic course of the disease and is called Addison's disease). Symptoms of Addison's Disease...

Adrenogenital syndrome

Adrenogenital syndrome (ACS) is a congenital pathological condition caused by dysfunction of the adrenal cortex with excessive secretion of androgens and is manifested by signs of virilization. Adrenogenital syndrome occurs if the adrenal cortex begins to produce too many male sex hormones. Violation of this function can be congenital or acquired. Symptoms of adrenogenital syndrome In boys: premature puberty; Excessive growth of muscle mass. In girls: premature puberty; Development of the male type. In men: excessive hair loss and increased muscle mass; Baldness, pimples; Lower voice, In women, the symptoms are more pronounced: an enlarged clitoris, a small chest. Causes of...

Albinism

Albinism is a congenital deficiency or lack of pigment in the body. This rare hereditary disease manifests itself from birth. The albinos have very light, pale pink skin, very blond hair and a light iris of the eyes. There are full and partial albinism. Full albinism - there is no production of melanin. Partial albinism (albinismus partialis) - melanin deficiency is observed in certain parts of the body, which is manifested by light pink or white spots on the skin, in the hair can be completely white strands. Symptoms of albinism Pale pink skin color. Blonde hair. Bright iris of the eyes. Hypersensitivity to light. The causes of albinism Albinism is a hereditary disease that...

Alcohol addiction

Alcoholism - a chronic disease caused by the systematic use of alcoholic beverages, characterized by an attraction to them and leading to mental and physical disorders. According to the definition of the World Health Organization (WHO), an alcoholic is a person who is dependent on alcohol, with mental and physical disorders, which has violated social and social ties. Alcoholism is a very serious illness. In our country every alcoholic has the right to treatment. Symptoms of alcoholism Constant need for alcohol. Uncontrolled drinking. Impaired memory and consciousness. Lesion of organs, for example, cirrhosis of the liver, gastritis, acute pancreatitis, cardiovascular diseases....

Allergic arthritis

Allergic arthritis is joint inflammation which is caused by organism reaction to foreign bodies. In this case any subject might be as an allergen.  Most of all, allergic arthritis attacks one joint, but in some cases inflammation may occur in several joints. The specificity of the disorder is possibility to quick and fast treatment. INFECTION AS ALLERGY’S COMPANION Allergic arthritis has a variety form – allergic infectious arthritis which may be caused by penetration of infection. Allergic infectious arthritis is subdivided into toxic-allergic (penetration through breathing passages) and bacterial-metastatic (through skin). Allergic infectious arthritis may be simply treated, as...

Allergic skin reactions

Allergic skin reactions are the increased sensitivity of skin cells as a result of external or internal stimuli. Such reactions of the body's immune system can manifest themselves in different ways - these are various reddening and rashes, reminiscent of measles, rubella, scarlet fever or so-called. Contact dermatitis. Allergic reactions are characterized by itchy skin. Symptoms Redness. Rashes that resemble measles, rubella. Itching of the skin. Causes Allergic skin reactions most often can not be distinguished from other allergies, for example, food allergies. Such a reaction can be caused by any food product. Meanwhile, allergic skin reactions include only rashes caused by...

Allergy to medicines

Undesirable reactions caused by drugs can be divided into two groups: allergic and non-allergic. These reactions differ in variety - from non-dangerous, rapidly disappearing, reddening of the skin to severe diseases, in which there is a threat to life. Most often there are undesirable reactions of skin, sweat, sebaceous glands, hair, nails. The most common reactions caused by drugs include urticaria, Lyell's syndrome or Stevens-Johnson syndrome (in which large blisters appear and the skin flakes), and exanthema, characterized by a lesion of the skin with a clearly delineated inflammatory focus. Exanthema occurs after prolonged use of the drug. Allergy to medicines can be very dangerous....

Amoebiasis (dysentery amebnaya)

Infectious Diseases Amoebiasis (amoebic dysentery) Amoebic dysentery or amoebiasis is a parasitic disease caused by a histological amoeba and characterized by ulcerative lesions of the large intestine. The causative agents of the disease are amoebae. These are single-celled organisms about 0.02 mm in size, affecting the mucosa of the colon. Amoebas that cause dysentery can only reproduce in the intestine. The life cycle of the histological amoeba consists of two stages - the vegetative and the resting stages, replacing each other depending on the conditions of the habitat. In the human body, the amoeba falls in the form of cysts. Having penetrated into the digestive tract, the cysts...

Amyloidosis of the kidneys

Amyloidosis is a disease in which a special substance - amyloid - is formed and deposited in various organs, including kidneys. Amyloid is a complex protein - a glucoprotein. It consists of 75 different amino acids, a small amount of carbohydrates, lipids and other substances. Amino acid composition of amyloid differs from the composition of tissue and serum proteins. Amyloid includes thin fibers, fibrils, and an unstructured mass. In the parenchymal organs, it is deposited mainly peri-reticularly, in other cases - pericollagenic. Amyloid is firmly bound to tissue elements and is resistant to the action of enzymes. Amyloidosis of the kidney is observed in 1-2% of nephrologic patients,...

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a disease in which the motor neurons of the cerebral cortex are affected, as well as the pyramidal tract and peripheral nerves. There are paralysis of muscles. In contrast to multiple sclerosis with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, motor disorders are not accompanied by loss of sensitivity. The disease is slowly progressing. First, the muscles begin to weaken. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis affects men three times more often than women. Usually, the disease occurs at the age of 40-60 years in 4-5 people for every 100 thousand people. All human movements control the brain. The electrical impulses sent by the cerebral cortex through the spinal cord and the...

Aneurysm

Aneurysm - this is a different magnitude and form of expansion and protrusion of the outside of the walls of the arteries. At the heart of the pathology is the weakening of the elastic properties of the vascular walls. Aneurysms of the thoracic and abdominal aorta are especially common. Causes The main cause of this pathology is atherosclerosis. In 95% of cases, the cause of aneurysms of the abdominal aorta is atherosclerosis of the aortic walls. Sometimes aneurysms of the thoracic aorta are caused by inflammatory changes observed, for example, with syphilis. Expansion of the walls of the vessels arise from injuries, in which the aortic wall is damaged, as well as due to myocardial...

Angina (tonsillitis)

Angina, or tonsillitis is an acute inflammation of the tonsils. Palatine tonsils are paired formations consisting of lymphoid tissue, which together with pharyngeal and lingual tonsils form a lymphoepithelial ring (the Pirogov-Valdeier ring). Symptoms of tonsillitis are sore throat, worse when swallowing, fever, chills. Cervical lymph nodes are also affected; They are enlarged and painful. There is reddening of the tonsils, sometimes a plaque appears on them. The contagiousness of this disease is not very high. Symptoms Increased body temperature and chills. Pain in the throat. Purulent raid on palatine tonsils and pharynx. Redness of palatine tonsils. Enlarged, painful cervical...

Angina pectoris

Angina pectoris (or angina pectoris) is a sudden lack of oxygen in the heart muscle due to the narrowing of the coronary arteries of the heart. This shortage, observed, mainly during a physical or emotional load, is the cause of the retrosternal pain of a compressive or pressing nature. In addition, the feeling of tightness in the chest, which occurs during an attack, often causes a person a sense of fear. Symptoms Pain radiating to the hands, neck or stomach. Dyspnea. Sensation of chest tightness. Fear. Causes Blood supply to the heart muscle (myocardium) is carried out by the coronary arteries. When they narrow, the blood supply to the heart muscle becomes insufficient. As a...

anthrax

Anthrax is an acute infectious disease from a group of bacterial zoonoses that occurs in the cutaneous or generalized form, depending on the site of the pathogen. This disease should be notified to the competent health authorities. The causative agent is a gram-positive fixed spore-forming bacterium Bacillus anthracis. The bacillus forms spores that can persist in the soil for decades. Symptoms Three forms of the disease are typical for a person. Skin Form Vesicles, edema, carbuncle. Heat. Observe in 95% of patients. Pathogens penetrate through the lesions on the skin. After 1-3 days, a red spot appears on the site of the pathogen introduction, which turns into a papule, the...

Arthritis in children

Arthritis is the disease that deforms a joint, where formed granulation tissue, which after some time totally affects the joint and bones. Arthritis may occur as the primary disease or caused by previous disease as well. It causes erosions, sclerotic lesions, deformation of tendon and joint, and the joint finally becomes deformed and motionless. One or several joints may be involved. Until recently this disease considered being as adult disease, but today it affects children as well. Arthritis in children can be acute or chronic. CAUSES The main reasons of arthritis development are injury, nervous system disorder, hypothermia, and heredity, lack of vitamins, metabolism disorder,...

Arthritis treatment

Arthritis is the inflammatory process in connective tissue joints.  Disease may affect any joints of big and small sizes. Arthritis occurs with unrecoverable pathological processes in case of ignoring the disease. HOW_TO_TREAT_ARTHRITIS Patient must undergo a full medical before start arthritis treatment. Quality and labs analysis allow making treatment process more effective and complex, since this disease has one more associated disease – rheumatism, hepatitis, lupus etc. Pathology which causes arthritis may have infectious manner. In this case treatment should be directed to this infection.  Also diet, healthy lifestyle, treatment procedures, immune system reinforcement –...

ARV, ORZ

Acute respiratory viral infection (ARVI) is a term that covers all diseases of the respiratory tract caused by viruses. Usually, this infection, often called a cold, manifests as a runny nose, sore throat, cough, a slight increase in temperature and passes without any serious complications. The most common acute respiratory viral infection is influenza. Symptoms Coryza. Cough. Inflammation of the eyes. Pain in the throat. Headache. Temperature increase. Pain in the extremities. The course of the majority of acute respiratory infections is as follows: first there is chills, sneezing, the head becomes "heavy", the mucous membranes (nose and throat) swell, nasal breathing is...

Ateroma

What is atheroma? This is a benign tumor of the skin in the form of a dense formation, usually painless, soldered to the skin, with clear contours. Such tumors are often called adipocytes, because they develop in the duct of the sebaceous gland. Most often, atheromas are localized in places where there are many sebaceous glands: near the ears, on the scalp, on the face, on the chest, on the back between the shoulder blades and in the groin area. These adolescents appear mainly in people aged 20-35 years, more often in men. Symptoms The skin appears bulging in size from 5 mm to 5 cm, usually round in shape, with sharp edges. The color of the tumor usually does not differ much from the...

Atopic dermatitis

Atopic dermatitis is an endogenous chronic inflammatory disease. Often this disease affects children. Children are worried about the constant itching, they have pigmented spots (a typical area of localization - elbows and popliteal folds, inner thighs). In adults, the disease affects the face, the back surface of the neck, the back of the neck, chest and forearms. The affected skin is dry, it often causes lichen on it, inflammatory processes begin. Atopic dermatitis is an incurable disease, but its symptoms can be mitigated. Symptoms Sudden eruptions, usually on the elbows and popliteal folds. Dry skin, itching. Severe redness. These symptoms are accompanied by eczema of the neck,...