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ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Balanoposthitis: Background, Pathophysiology, Epidemiology

Balanitis is a disease characterized by inflammation of the glans penis. Usually the inflammation also extends to the foreskin, and then the disease is called balanoposthitis. This is a very common inflammatory disease in men that can occur in certain skin conditions (for example, psoriasis), as well as due to traumatic causes such as irritation with urine, smegma, clothing, or various bacteria, viruses, against a decrease in immunity, diabetes, urethritis, as well as when hygiene standards are not observed as prevention of balanitis. There are several types of balanitis: traumatic balanitis manifests itself in the formation of cracks, redness and swelling, after coital or other...

Baldness |Types, Cause, Prevention & Solutions

Alopecia (alopecia) is the absence or thinning of hair on the skin in places of normal growth. The shape and localization distinguish between circular and chronic alopecia. With a circular shape appear foci of alopecia rounded size of a coin, more often on the scalp, in the region of the beard, less often under the armpits. In chronic baldness, only the scalp is affected. First, the focus appears in the forehead, then the alopecia gradually progresses, leaving only a small strip of hair in the form of a crown that runs from one temple to the next. There are two forms of alopecia. The first - scarring alopecia, which is characterized by skin inflammation, fibrosis and the disappearance of...

Basal Cell Carcinoma: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, and More

Cancer can affect any human body, including the skin. Basaloma (basal cell carcinoma) is a tumor with limited slow growth. Risk factors include: prolonged exposure to sunlight, contact with inorganic compounds of arsenic, increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight. There is a dense nodule or a group of small nodules that form a small barely rising plaque. After a while, at the center of the lesion, erosion or an ulcer with a thin scaly crust is formed, along the edges of which close nodules close together are visible. Later these nodules disintegrate and an ulcer is formed with a smooth, bright red bottom and dense margins. Symptoms Small shiny, loose nodules (especially on the face...

Bedsores (pressure ulcers) - Symptoms and causes

When a person, due to injury or illness, has to stay in bed for a long time or be in a wheelchair, there is always a risk of bedsores. In this case, the skin areas of the body, which account for a large load, blushes, thinens, then turns blue and even blackens. Finally, due to the necrosis of the tissues, ulcers appear on this part of the skin. Often, as a result of decubitus, severe lesions remain, sometimes under the skin and muscles, and damage to the bone. Symptoms There are four stages in the formation of pressure sores: The first stage: reddening of the skin with clear boundaries; The second stage: a strong puffiness and thickening of the skin; The third stage: muscles,...

Benign Bone Tumor Treatment & Symptoms

A tumor is a superfluous pathological proliferation of tissues. It consists of qualitatively changed cells that have lost their differentiation. Benign tumor is characterized by slow growth. It can reach large sizes and then the tissue bordering with it is shifted. However, the tumor does not penetrate into other tissues, does not destroy them and does not metastasize. Usually the names of tumors come from the Greek or Latin names of the tissues from which they formed, with the addition of a suffix. Symptoms Symptoms can be very different. The most common are: Pain, swelling, swelling. Limited mobility of the joint or limb. Frequent fractures of bones. Disturbance of bone growth....

Birthmarks: Causes, Types and Treatments

Birthmark (Latin Nevus, birthmark) is an overgrowth of certain skin cells. Distinguish vascular, pigmentary and warty birthmarks. Their color varies from light brown to brownish black. Sometimes moles are congenital, but more often they appear later. Birthmarks can be of different sizes, can rise above the surface of the skin or be completely flat. Usually their surface is smooth, but can be rough, reminiscent of a wart. There may also be hairs on the mole. Symptoms Dark spots of different sizes on the skin. Spots can rise above the skin. The surface of the stain can be smooth or rough, with or without hairs. Causes of appearance In some areas of the skin, there is a...

Bladder Cancer Symptoms, Signs, Treatment, Prognosis, Staging

In case of cancer in the bladder (most often in its mucous membrane), one or several malignant tumors appear. Cancer can spread to nearby organs, and sometimes its metastases are found in bones or lungs. Like many other types of cancer, so does bladder cancer most often in the elderly. Tumors of the urinary system most often bleed, so the first symptom of the disease can be blood in the urine. However, blood will not necessarily appear with every urination. If the tumor interferes with the outflow of urine, the kidney function may be impaired, the kidneys will begin to ache. When the tumor pressure on the outlet of the bladder for the patient comes hard times: he often urinates, and after...

Blood circulation violation – the reasons and symptoms

Violation of blood circulation is a concept that covers many disorders that cause circulatory failure of tissues. In this case, arterial blood flow to the tissues and the outflow of venous blood from them are disturbed. Due to the inadequacy of blood circulation, tissues begin to experience oxygen deficiency, cell metabolism is disrupted, and cells die. Violation of the cerebral circulation usually leads to a stroke. Symptoms of cerebral circulatory insufficiency Problems with vision - vagueness, double vision, reduced visual field. Speech disorders. Pathological changes in the perception of objects, people, phenomena. A person can not recognize his loved ones, use objects for other...

Bone Pain: Causes, Symptoms, Treatments, and More

There are about 245 different bones in the human body. These bones are the supporting framework for soft tissues, most of the muscles are attached to the bones. The joint is the structure that provides the movable joint of two or more bones. The joint consists of an articular head and an articular cavity, covered with cartilage. From the displacement of the joint retains the ligaments and the joint capsule from the connective tissue. Pain in the bone or in the joint is often a consequence of trauma. When there is pain in several bones or joints in different parts of the body, one can assume the presence of a bone disease or some internal disease of the body. Causes of pain in bones and...

Borreliosis (Lyme Disease): Practice Essentials, Background, Etiology

Borreliosis is a disease caused by spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia, characterized by early skin lesions and migrating erythema. After weeks or even months, there may be lesions of the nervous system, heart, joints. The most common tick borreliosis (Lyme disease). Infection occurs when the infected tick is bitten. Symptoms Red spot on the site of the tick bite. General malaise, pain in the joints. Neurological symptoms. Increased redness of the skin. More than 50% of people have symptoms of borreliosis 3-30 days after the bite of an infected tick. First of all, at the site of the bite there is a characteristic reddening of the skin, which increases and can persist for several...

BPH (Enlarged Prostate): What Is It & What Causes It?

In modern medicine, the proliferation of the prostate gland due to active tissue growth is called prostate adenoma. Although some "with experience" and patients in the age group still use terms such as prostate adenoma or urinary retention. For the sake of justice, we note that this name has one more synonym: benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH). In any case, the essence of the ailment lies in increasing the size of the prostate, which leads to the appearance in it of nodes that interfere with normal urination. Benign character implies the absence of metastases, which distinguishes the disease from oncological disease of the prostate gland. Adenoma of the prostate is rightly considered a...

Brain Abscess: Risk Factors, Symptoms & Diagnosis

Neurology Abscess of the brain Brain abscess is a significant accumulation of pus in the brain, which occurs again in the presence of focal infection outside the central nervous system. Perhaps the simultaneous existence of several abscesses, depending on their size and quantity, is more or less affected by the brain. Symptoms of this lesion are different, for example, paralysis, impaired sensitivity or orientation. Epilepsy may occur. In addition, there are general symptoms of the disease, for example, fever, headache, nausea and vomiting. The formation of a foci of infection is often accompanied by inflammation of the brain. Depending on the way the infection gets into the brain,...

Brain Hemorrhage (Bleeding): Causes, Symptoms, Treatments

Hemorrhage in the brain is the ingress of blood into the brain tissue due to rupture of the blood vessel or a significant increase in the conductivity of the walls of the blood vessels of the brain. As a result of intracerebral hemorrhage and destruction of the nervous tissue, a hemorrhagic stroke occurs. Symptoms of hemorrhage in the brain - headache, vomiting, a rare pulse and a disorder of consciousness. In severe cases - paralysis, epileptic seizures. Sometimes hemorrhage is associated with rupture of the blood vessel of the meninges. Then the blood is distributed over the surface of the brain, hematomas are formed. The human brain is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (cerebral fluid)...

Brain Tumors - Signs and Symptoms Not to Ignore

There are benign and malignant tumors of various parts of the body, as well as the brain. Even benign brain tumors are a huge danger. Sprouting and destroying tissues, the tumor causes compression of the brain, cranial nerves and blood vessels that feed the brain, seriously damaging its structures, contributing to its swelling and increased intracranial pressure. In the absence of treatment, edema ends with death. Symptoms Symptoms can be very different. The most common are: Strong, gradually growing headaches. Circulatory disorders. Nausea and vomiting. Dizziness, impaired orientation in space, short-term fainting. Convulsions. Behavior changes. Paralysis. Changes in the...

Broken Hip: Types, Causes, and Symptoms

The femur consists of two epiphyses with articular surfaces of the hip and knee joints, as well as the inner diaphysis. The neck of the thigh connects the femur with its head located in the acetabulum of the hip joint. The cervix and diaphysis of the femur form an obtuse angle, which changes with age. In addition, it is in the neck area that an intensive process of decreasing bone mass first begins. Fractures of the femoral neck, which accounts for the static load, very often occur under the influence of external factors (for example, falling, squeezing or punching). Symptoms and Causes Pain in the thigh, worse with the movements of the foot. Impossibility to stand on the damaged...

Brucellosis - Symptoms, Diagnosis, Treatment of Brucellosis

What is cow-type brucellosis? Brucellosis cow type, or Bang's disease - one of the most common forms of brucellosis . It is caused by brucella - a sedentary, ubiquitous bacteria. The source of the infection is domestic animals. The incubation period can last from two weeks to several months. At the onset of the disease, the symptoms can be different - from general weakness to severe headaches, diarrhea, fever and chills. Then a characteristic fluctuation of body temperature is noted. At certain intervals, it rises to 41 ° C, then normalizes. In medicine, such a temperature fluctuation is called an undulating fever. For the first time this infectious disease was studied and described...

Bursitis Guide: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment Options

Joint is a specific articulating mechanism. Nature provided some special fluid which fills a joint capsule, to reduce friction of joint parts. In the moment of extreme stress or heavy pressure, excessive joint friction causes inflammation in synovial sac (bursitis) and accumulation of pathogenic exudate.  CAUSES serous bursitis characterized by accumulation of non-infected fluid within the bursa. Arthrocentesis provides transparent exudate of grey or bright yellow color. septic bursitis develops when pathogen microbes invaded synovial sac. Puncture sample is muddy, usually bad smelling, white, milk or greenly color. hemorrhagic bursitis after injury, caused by blood in synovial...

Bursitis Symptoms, Treatment (Shoulder, Hip, Elbow, and More)

Bursitis is the pathology of inflammation process, which affects synovial joints. It characterized by unwanted producing and accumulation of synovial fluid in joint cavity. Bursitis can be effectively treated by drugs, as well as by additional therapy at home. MEDICATION TREATMENT At first, a doctor has to identify the cause of inflammation, to increase effectiveness of treatment (it can be various microorganisms – brucella, gonococcus, and spirochete). Examination: patient’s anamnesis analysis; bacteriological analysis of synovial bursa of affected joint; serological reaction test.  To define specificity of bursitis, doctor examines joint’s motion, and administers...