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ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Baldness

Alopecia (alopecia) is the absence or thinning of hair on the skin in places of normal growth. The shape and localization distinguish between circular and chronic alopecia. With a circular shape appear foci of alopecia rounded size of a coin, more often on the scalp, in the region of the beard, less often under the armpits. In chronic baldness, only the scalp is affected. First, the focus appears in the forehead, then the alopecia gradually progresses, leaving only a small strip of hair in the form of a crown that runs from one temple to the next. There are two forms of alopecia. The first - scarring alopecia, which is characterized by skin inflammation, fibrosis and the disappearance of...

Basaloma (basal cell carcinoma)

Cancer can affect any human body, including the skin. Basaloma (basal cell carcinoma) is a tumor with limited slow growth. Risk factors include: prolonged exposure to sunlight, contact with inorganic compounds of arsenic, increased sensitivity of the skin to sunlight. There is a dense nodule or a group of small nodules that form a small barely rising plaque. After a while, at the center of the lesion, erosion or an ulcer with a thin scaly crust is formed, along the edges of which close nodules close together are visible. Later these nodules disintegrate and an ulcer is formed with a smooth, bright red bottom and dense margins. Symptoms Small shiny, loose nodules (especially on the face...

Bedsores

When a person, due to injury or illness, has to stay in bed for a long time or be in a wheelchair, there is always a risk of bedsores. In this case, the skin areas of the body, which account for a large load, blushes, thinens, then turns blue and even blackens. Finally, due to the necrosis of the tissues, ulcers appear on this part of the skin. Often, as a result of decubitus, severe lesions remain, sometimes under the skin and muscles, and damage to the bone. Symptoms There are four stages in the formation of pressure sores: The first stage: reddening of the skin with clear boundaries; The second stage: a strong puffiness and thickening of the skin; The third stage: muscles,...

Benign tumors of bones

A tumor is a superfluous pathological proliferation of tissues. It consists of qualitatively changed cells that have lost their differentiation. Benign tumor is characterized by slow growth. It can reach large sizes and then the tissue bordering with it is shifted. However, the tumor does not penetrate into other tissues, does not destroy them and does not metastasize. Usually the names of tumors come from the Greek or Latin names of the tissues from which they formed, with the addition of a suffix. Symptoms Symptoms can be very different. The most common are: Pain, swelling, swelling. Limited mobility of the joint or limb. Frequent fractures of bones. Disturbance of bone growth....

Big toe bursitis

Each joint has capsule, which creates space – that is called synovial bursa. It produces special fluid which provides joint gliding. Inflammation of this bursa causes excessive accumulation of synovial fluid and this condition called bursitis. Also, inflammation causes swelling around the big toe, which makes much trouble, especially in footwear selection – this is called big toe bursitis. CAUSES There are many causes which lead to inflammation and develop deformation of toe. General causes that develop big toe bursitis: wrong footwear; flat-footedness; genetic predisposition; rheumatic diseases; traumas. Tight footwear on high heels causes not only inflammation of joint...

Birthmark

Birthmark (Latin Nevus, birthmark) is an overgrowth of certain skin cells. Distinguish vascular, pigmentary and warty birthmarks. Their color varies from light brown to brownish black. Sometimes moles are congenital, but more often they appear later. Birthmarks can be of different sizes, can rise above the surface of the skin or be completely flat. Usually their surface is smooth, but can be rough, reminiscent of a wart. There may also be hairs on the mole. Symptoms Dark spots of different sizes on the skin. Spots can rise above the skin. The surface of the stain can be smooth or rough, with or without hairs. Causes of appearance In some areas of the skin, there is a...

Bleeding from the nose

What is nasal bleeding? Nasal bleeding - the flow of blood from blood vessels when their integrity is violated or the permeability of the wall is violated. The nasal cavity begins the person's airways. A man checks the inhaled air with his nose. However, the most important function of the nose is the treatment of air to assimilate it with the lungs, so in the nasal cavity the air is warmed, filtered and humidified. To warm the air, the wings of the nose are designed, inside are covered with a mucous membrane, with the interlacing of blood vessels in it, which can expand and contract. When the vessels expand, the air warms up. Nose tissues are easily damaged The plexus of the...

Borrelioz

Borreliosis is a disease caused by spirochaetes of the genus Borrelia, characterized by early skin lesions and migrating erythema. After weeks or even months, there may be lesions of the nervous system, heart, joints. The most common tick borreliosis (Lyme disease). Infection occurs when the infected tick is bitten. Symptoms Red spot on the site of the tick bite. General malaise, pain in the joints. Neurological symptoms. Increased redness of the skin. More than 50% of people have symptoms of borreliosis 3-30 days after the bite of an infected tick. First of all, at the site of the bite there is a characteristic reddening of the skin, which increases and can persist for several...

Brucellosis of cow type

What is cow-type brucellosis? Brucellosis cow type, or Bang's disease - one of the most common forms of brucellosis . It is caused by brucella - a sedentary, ubiquitous bacteria. The source of the infection is domestic animals. The incubation period can last from two weeks to several months. At the onset of the disease, the symptoms can be different - from general weakness to severe headaches, diarrhea, fever and chills. Then a characteristic fluctuation of body temperature is noted. At certain intervals, it rises to 41 ° C, then normalizes. In medicine, such a temperature fluctuation is called an undulating fever. For the first time this infectious disease was studied and described...

Bursitis

Joint is a specific articulating mechanism. Nature provided some special fluid which fills a joint capsule, to reduce friction of joint parts. In the moment of extreme stress or heavy pressure, excessive joint friction causes inflammation in synovial sac (bursitis) and accumulation of pathogenic exudate.  CAUSES serous bursitis characterized by accumulation of non-infected fluid within the bursa. Arthrocentesis provides transparent exudate of grey or bright yellow color. septic bursitis develops when pathogen microbes invaded synovial sac. Puncture sample is muddy, usually bad smelling, white, milk or greenly color. hemorrhagic bursitis after injury, caused by blood in synovial...

Bursitis treatment

Bursitis is the pathology of inflammation process, which affects synovial joints. It characterized by unwanted producing and accumulation of synovial fluid in joint cavity. Bursitis can be effectively treated by drugs, as well as by additional therapy at home. MEDICATION TREATMENT At first, a doctor has to identify the cause of inflammation, to increase effectiveness of treatment (it can be various microorganisms – brucella, gonococcus, and spirochete). Examination: patient’s anamnesis analysis; bacteriological analysis of synovial bursa of affected joint; serological reaction test.  To define specificity of bursitis, doctor examines joint’s motion, and administers...