Search

ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Caisson disease

A co-axial disease is a disease that occurs when a rapid transition from an environment with increased pressure to a medium with a lower pressure occurs. The caisson is a waterproof chamber used for underwater work at great depths. Today, diving is becoming an increasingly popular entertainment, so it is not surprising that cases of caisson disease are more common. Symptoms Pressure in the ears, dizziness. Pain in the joints. Rashes on the skin, itching. Fatigue, shortness of breath. Weakness and / or lack of sensitivity in the limbs, Bleeding from the ears and nose. Drowsiness until unconscious. Paralysis. Symptoms of caisson disease are different - from joint pain in the...

Cancer of the bladder

In case of cancer in the bladder (most often in its mucous membrane), one or several malignant tumors appear. Cancer can spread to nearby organs, and sometimes its metastases are found in bones or lungs. Like many other types of cancer, so does bladder cancer most often in the elderly. Tumors of the urinary system most often bleed, so the first symptom of the disease can be blood in the urine. However, blood will not necessarily appear with every urination. If the tumor interferes with the outflow of urine, the kidney function may be impaired, the kidneys will begin to ache. When the tumor pressure on the outlet of the bladder for the patient comes hard times: he often urinates, and after...

Cancer of the gallbladder

The gallbladder is a pear-shaped hollow organ located between the liver and the duodenum. Its walls are thin, composed of fibers of smooth muscles. The bubble itself consists of three parts: the bottom, the body and the neck. Its main function is to concentrate the digestive juice of the liver (bile). From it, the bile moves into the duodenum, where it mixes with the food slurry coming from the stomach. In the gallbladder, as in any other organ, a malignant tumor (carcinoma) can form. Symptoms of carcinoma, unfortunately, are very late. Symptoms Pressure and severe pain in the upper abdomen. Digestive disorders, weight loss. Jaundice. The risk group includes patients suffering from...

Cancer of the penis

Malignant tumors of the penis can cause severe complications. In developed countries, such tumors are very rare and account for approximately 1% of all malignant tumors. Most often, the tumor is localized on the head and inner leaf of the foreskin. Symptoms Pain during urination. Severe itching. Sperm with an admixture of blood. Warts and knots. Dense formations on the penis. Fetid smell. Watery, purulent discharge and bleeding. At first, the symptoms of the disease are slightly expressed (mild itching or burning sensation during urination). Then they intensify - urination is accompanied by pain, the skin of the sexual organ becomes strained, bladder emptying becomes difficult,...

Cancer of the vagina and labia

Malignant tumors of the vagina, labia and clitoris are relatively rare tumors of the female genital organs. These diseases are more likely to affect women at the end of menopause. Vaginal cancer is a malignant tumor that develops from the epithelial cells of the vagina or the ectopic epithelium. The appearance of cancer is almost always preceded by changes in the skin of the labia, which the woman usually does not pay attention to because they either do not cause significant disturbances or are extremely insignificant. These changes are not dangerous, but they are the first stage of tissue degeneration. Symptoms Cancer of the vagina: Watery, spotting (whitish). Dysfunction of the...

Caries

Caries is a disease of hard tooth tissues, which causes softening and destruction of tooth enamel and dentin. The affected areas of the tooth become brown. Symptoms Destruction of enamel, it becomes rough. Brown spots on the teeth. Toothache, worse when eating, especially cold or hot. Pulsation. Hypersensitivity of teeth. Causes of appearance When eating food containing carbohydrates, when food and saliva are mixed in the mouth, bacteria begin to act, acids are formed that can dissolve the lime that is part of the tooth enamel. This process is activated by the action of bacteria contained in plaque. There are other causes of caries, for example, improper nutrition, harmful...

Cellulite

Cellulitis - inflammation of the subcutaneous tissue, usually non-parasitic, spreading along the course of connective tissue in the intercellular space. For various reasons, the cells of the subcutaneous fat layer can swell strongly, tighten and put pressure on the upper layers of the skin. Connective tissue fibers located between the fat cells are not able to grow so large that they normally retain these fat cells. Therefore, in the affected areas of the skin appear small tubercles, and the skin begins to resemble a quilted blanket. This distinctive symptom of cellulite is easy to see if you lightly squeeze the skin with your fingers. In this case, folds appear, and the skin resembles an...

Cerebral edema

Cerebral edema is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the brain tissue, clinically manifested by the syndrome of increased intracranial pressure. A general or local edema of the brain is possible. The mechanism of edema (edema) depends on the underlying disease, which was the cause of fluid accumulation. With hydrocephalus, as the volume of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) increases, the pressure in the ventricles increases. At the same time, part of the liquor seeps into the nearby tissues next to the ventricles. Otherwise, edema occurs when brain tissue is damaged due to a lack of oxygen, as a result of which the cellular pump is damaged and more sodium enters the brain cells, followed by...

Chest pain

What is chest pain? The thorax is the upper part of the trunk, which has the shape of a truncated cone. The thoracic cage is formed by the thoracic spine, ribs and sternum. It protects vital organs (heart, lungs), is connected to the skeleton of the upper limbs, participates in the process of breathing. Chest pain is one of the common ailments. Causes of chest pain Causes of chest pain: damage to the chest wall (for example, in trauma), dysfunction of the chest cavity (for example, heart, lungs), diseases of other organs, characterized by pain radiating to the chest. When a person has chest pain, he usually thinks that his heart is hurting. Pain in the chest may be the first...

Cholera

A person living in our region and not visiting foreign countries, can be sure that he will not get sick with cholera. However, such a danger arises during travel to the Middle and Far East, Africa or China: in these countries this infectious disease is very common. Cholera is caused by cholera vibrios. Symptoms of the disease: sudden vomiting and diarrhea, low body temperature and thirst. In especially severe cases, the patient loses consciousness. The greatest danger in the disease of cholera is dehydration, because of which blood circulation and kidney function are disrupted. Symptoms Acute painless severe watery diarrhea with vomiting. Strong thirst due to fluid loss. Weakness,...

Cholesteatoma of the ear

Cholesteatoma of the ear is a cavity enclosed by a layer of skin, containing layers of dead skin cells that grow from the middle ear into the mastoid process of the temporal bone, destroying normal tissues as they grow. In fairly rare cases, the cholesteatoma is congenital and affects the temporal bone and the central nervous system of a person. This is a congenital benign tumor that is usually located inside the skull under the cerebral cortex, and between the soft and hard shell of the spinal cord. Meanwhile, the ear's cholesteatoma is formed much later and is acquired. Symptoms and Causes Repetitive inflammation of the middle ear. Permanent deterioration of hearing. Purulent...

Chorea

Small chorea is a disorder of a neurological origin, manifested by severe impairments of motor functions and psyche. Most girls are sick at the age of 6-15 years. The disease affects the subcortical structures of the brain, especially the striatum. The course of the disease can be hidden, subacute, acute and recurrent. Symptoms Twitching of the striated muscle of the face and body. Violation of coordination of movements. Changes in the psyche. Paralysis. The most important symptoms of small chorea are sudden involuntary irregular movements of limbs, head, trunk and muscle tone decrease. During the excitement, reflex movements increase, and during sleep pass. There may be changes...

Chronic lymphatic leukemia

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) - a benign tumor of the lymphoid tissue, which is based on morphologically mature lymphocytes. CLL mature lymphoid cells of the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues degenerate into cancer, begin to proliferate, invade the bone marrow and blood. This form of leukemia usually occurs in the elderly, progresses slowly. Symptoms Enlargement of lymph nodes. Lack of appetite, weight loss. Dyspnoea with physical exertion. Feeling of fullness in the stomach. Enlargement of the liver and spleen. Sometimes pinpoint hemorrhage on the skin and mucous membranes. Skin diseases (eg, eczema). The first symptom of the disease is an increase in lymph nodes....

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

Chronic myelogenous leukemia is one of the types of leukemia with a predominance of bone marrow elements in the peripheral blood. Myelos from Greek - "bone marrow". The term "leukemia" combines numerous tumors of the hematopoietic system that arise from the blood-forming cells and, as a rule, affect the bone marrow. With respect to all leukemias, the clonal theory of their origin is proven: the development of a tumor from one originally mutated cell. Leukemia can be treated as a group of benign and malignant tumors. There are changes in the white blood. The number of white blood cells varies considerably, more often than not. In 1 mm cube. Blood of a healthy person contains 5-8 thousand...

Chronic Renal Failure

What is chronic renal failure? Chronic kidney failure usually develops due to a gradual decrease in kidney function. Often patients do not immediately notice the weakening of kidney function, because the symptoms of the disease for a long time are either absent or mild. Symptoms of beginning chronic renal failure may be as follows: increased thirst, frequent urge to urinate, pallor of the skin, rapid fatigue, impaired appetite, vomiting. Later, there are more serious symptoms: shortness of breath, diarrhea, anemia, edema of the digestive tract and genital organs, neuropathy, impotence and even a coma, dangerous for the patient's life. All these symptoms occur when the water-salt...

Cluster headache

Cluster headache is a seizure of a one-sided intense headache, which is manifested by a series of seizures in a limited period of time (from 2 weeks to 3 months) followed by a prolonged remission. Attacks last from 15 minutes to 3 hours and are repeated several times a day, often at night. During the attack, sweating, redness of the skin, runny nose, lacrimation, dilated pupil, redness and swelling of the eye on the affected side, nausea. At the height of an attack there may be periods of apnea. Symptoms One-sided headache of temporo-ocular localization, sometimes extending to the frontal and occipital parts of the head. Attacks of pain occur mainly at night. Seizures go in a series...

Colon cancer

From the small intestine, undigested and unutilized remains of food pulp enter the colon. Here, by dehydrating the pulp, stool masses are formed. Muscles of the large intestine push them into the rectum. Almost half of all cancers of the digestive tract are cancer of the large intestine (more precisely, three of its departments - the ascending, horizontal and descending colon). Men suffer from this most dangerous pathology less often than women. Usually, this disease manifests itself in people aged 60-70 years, in the overwhelming majority of cases - in the inhabitants of cities with a sedentary lifestyle, eating large amounts of meat, and also suffering from frequent constipation. At the...

Constipation

What is constipation? The frequency of stools in healthy people is very individual. Normal is considered empty bowel 1-2 times a day, some more often, which is also perfectly normal. In others, bowel movement occurs every second or third laziness, with usually no detectable painful changes. Constipation is a condition in which the frequency of bowel emptying that is usual for a person is violated, defecation becomes possible only with the intake of laxatives, while a small amount of solid feces is released. Constipation is divided into: Sharp. Chronic. Temporary. Due to the expansion of the large intestine. Mental causes of constipation The mental state of a person...

Contact dermatitis

Contact dermatitis is an inflammation of the skin caused by mechanical, physical or chemical irritants as a result of direct contact. Allergic dermatitis, as a rule, manifests itself not immediately, but after a few hours after irritation. Various substances can cause an allergic reaction, for example: Chemicals. Cleaners and detergents, washing powders. Cosmetics, clothing and medicines. Synthetic ointments. Machine oil. Metals. There is a change in affected areas of the skin: redness appears, bubbles, crusts are formed. Often on the changed skin there is a wet eczema, sometimes when scratching the damaged tissues also begin to get wet. Increases the risk of infection....

Cough

What is a cough? Coughing is a complex reflex response of the body caused by irritation of the nerve roots mainly of the mucous membrane of the respiratory tract, nose and pleura. When you cough out, foreign bodies are pushed out, which are "in the wrong throat". Sputum blood may be a symptom of a serious illness (for example, tuberculosis, lung tumors, pulmonary edema or pulmonary embolism (blockage of blood or lymphatic vessels by gas bubbles, foreign particles (emboli)). Causes of cough The most common cause of cough is caused by irritants, microbes that get into the respiratory tract. There are many diseases of the respiratory tract and lungs, the symptom of which is...

Cretinism

Cretinism is an endocrine disease with a disruption of the thyroid function, delay in physical and mental development. Insufficiency of function or absence of a thyroid gland can be congenital. Cretinism can also develop during the growth of a child due to a lack of iodine or thyroid hormone. Symptoms of cretinism Low growth. Thick, big tongue. A flat nose. Mental retardation, idiocy. Causes of cretinism The reasons for the appearance of cretinism are not yet sufficiently investigated. However, it is known that childhood cretinism is manifested due to a lack of iodine in the mother's body. Women with endemic goiter most often give birth to children with disrupted thyroid...

Cutaneous and visceral leishmaniasis

Leishmaniasis is a group of infectious diseases characterized by peptic ulceration of the skin and mucous membranes (cutaneous form) or a severe lesion of internal organs (visceral form). The disease is common in tropical and subtropical countries, caused by parasitic protozoa of the genus Leishmania. There are four forms of the disease, depending on the causative agent that caused it: Leishmaniasis cutaneous in the Old World. Leishmaniasis cutaneous of the New World. Skin and mucosa brazilian (espuda). Visceral (kala-azar). There is also diffuse cutaneous leishmaniasis - this incurable form of the disease is common in Ethiopia and in Venezuela. On the skin appear knots that...

Cyanosis

What is cyanosis? Cyanosis (from the Greek kyanos - dark blue) is a cyanotic coloration of the skin and mucous membranes. The most common is cyanosis of the fingers, lips, face, and in severe cases - a common cyanosis of the skin and mucous membranes. The bluish skin tone is caused by a change in the color of the blood, namely the high content of reduced hemoglobin in it. On the arteries, hemoglobin, connected with oxygen, enters the organs. Blood, saturated with oxygen, has a bright red color. In cells, oxygen is replaced by carbon dioxide, then through the veins blood is sent to the heart and lungs. The "used" blood retains a bluish tint until the carbon dioxide contained in the...

Cyclothymia

Cyclotemia - this is a significant mood swings from upbeat to depressed. This is an easy form of manic-depressive psychosis. The phases (depressive and manic) with cyclothymia are less pronounced. The main feature of the course of this manic-depressive psychosis is its periodicity. During the course of life, only the depressive phase or manic phase can be repeated. In addition, the phases can alternate. Known so-called. The dual type of flow: the phases change one another in a row, then the state improves. Cyclotemia usually begins in the spring or autumn. The duration of individual phases of the disease reaches six months. Women suffer more often than men, because they are more prone...