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ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Damage to the brain in children: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

The brain begins to form at the end of the first month of pregnancy. For the multiplication of cells and the formation of their interrelations, constant provision of cells with oxygen, glucose and other substances is required. Violations of the formation of the brain in the fetus, brain damage during pregnancy, childbirth or in the first month after birth are called early brain injuries. This concept covers various diseases and forms of disability - from mild disruption of movements and speech to mental or physical retardation. Symptoms Delayed development. Violations of speech and behavior. Movement disorders. Disturbance of swallowing. Absence of normal reflexes. Low...

Dandruff: Causes and treatments

Dandruff (from the Latin squamae) are visible, easily peeling particles of keratinized cells of the surface layer of the skin. With normal regeneration of the cells of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, their exfoliation takes place imperceptibly. Scales are of different shapes: pearly, layered, leaf-shaped, coarse, with pronounced peeling, firmly retained on the skin. Depending on the type and thickness, the scales can be whitish, yellowish, grayish-silver in color. Most often dandruff is formed on the skin of the scalp. Increased skin peeling can be simple (with a genetic predisposition associated with the activity of the sexual glands) and symptomatic (characteristic of certain skin...

Death of the brain: Symptoms, Causes

When the brain dies, all signs of the vital activity of the body disappear, for example, heartbeat, breathing, etc. In forensic medicine, such death is called social. When the neurons of the brain die, a person loses the ability to think, speak, feel, etc. This is an irreversible process. Symptoms Lack of breath. Heart failure. When performing electroencephalography, the device draws a "zero line". Pupils do not respond to light. Impossibility of determining the contrast medium in the brain. Causes A common cause of brain death is a deficiency of oxygen or blood. The brain can die as a result of poisoning, damage, inflammation (encephalitis). Loss of consciousness occurs with...

Delirium: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

What is mania and delirium? The mood of a person changes several times during the day. But he can control these mood changes. The inability of a person to control his mood is manifested by mental disorders - mania, depression. Mania is characterized by a change in mood, a lot of ideas, insomnia, exaggerated self-esteem. People with mania are extremely sensitive and irritable, their plans are often unrealistic and not feasible. Sometimes the illusion of unlimited power, supernatural powers, or power can turn into hallucinations. Variability of mood is accompanied by a change in thinking, speech, a violation of autonomic functions. Brad is a symptom of a mental disorder, manifested in...

Dementia – Signs, Symptoms, Causes, Tests, Treatment, Care

Dementia is a clinical syndrome characterized by a loss of memory, as well as other functions of thinking. This phenomenon occurs in the case of chronic degenerative lesions of the brain of a progressive nature. However, dementia is characterized not only by changes in mental processes, but also by manifestations of disturbances in behavior, as well as changes in the person's personality. It is important to understand that dementia differs from oligophrenia or congenital dementia, primarily due to illness or damage to the brain. As a rule, dementia is a condition characteristic of the elderly. Because of natural aging, the body begins to experience disruptions in the operation of different...

Dental Cysts: Understanding and Treating Cysts

When a periodontal infection (a thin layer between the root of the tooth and the jaw bone) is infected, a granuloma develops from the tooth canal. This is the disease of the tooth, which is a small purulent sac (up to 5 mm), consisting of a granular tissue surrounded by a fibrous capsule welded to the top of the tooth root. Gradually increasing, the granuloma grows into a cyst. Increasing, the granuloma is covered with a membrane and turns into a "sac" containing dead cells - the cyst. In the absence of treatment, the cyst grows and covers an increasing number of teeth. Spontaneous opening of the cyst (rarely) leads to the formation of a fistula that connects the cyst cavity with the...

Depression (major depressive disorder) - Symptoms and causes

Depression is an oppressed state in which a person is constantly in a depressed and gloomy mood. He feels bad physically, thinking is inhibited, and overall activity is reduced. If the symptoms of depression are expressed by psychosis, then patients should be constantly monitored, given their gravitation towards suicide. Treatment of depression should be done only under the guidance of a specialist. Causes of Depression To understand how to get rid of depression, it is necessary, first of all, to determine the reasons for which the patient manifests this condition. In a person's life there are many periods when he suffers from a certain form of depression, which arises as a consequence of...

Depression in children: causes, symptoms, treatment and prevention

Depression in children - this is one of the mental and emotional disorders, manifested in behavioral changes. Depression in childhood differs from depression in adults. If the child is sad or irritable, this does not necessarily mean that he has a depressive condition. This can be a normal emotional and psychological change, manifested during growth. But if the symptoms of depression in children become stable and destructively affect a child's social activity, then this may indicate that the child has depression. The child's behavior can become uncontrollable, he conflicts with others, misses the school, which leads to a decline in school performance. A child can start drinking alcohol,...

Depression in the elderly: symptoms, consequences of the disease, treatment

In European studies, it was found that the prevalence of depression in elderly people is approximately 12%. And women of this number are 14%, and men are 9%. According to the statistics of the World Health Organization, 40-45% of elderly patients who have consulted a doctor with various diseases have pronounced symptoms of depression in old age. Causes of depression in the elderly The main reason for the development of the depressive state is the rejection of the situation of own aging. In connection with the general aging of the body, physical infirmity and difficulty in self-service are constantly increasing. Due to the fact that with age, there is a weakening of vision and hearing,...

Depression Symptoms and Warning Signs

The feeling of depression, total depletion of forces - these are often observed symptoms of various diseases. Symptoms, which are based on increased fatigue, worsening of working capacity, lack of desire to do something, doctors call nonspecific. Often a person also has a bad mood, a headache, he becomes nervous, depressed and irritable. Such a state can arise in everyone. Then simple work seems difficult for a person, and in the end, he starts to get tired even from his thoughts and feelings. Do not think that if you drink a lot of coffee, then you will be active. Excessive consumption of caffeine can cause similar symptoms. If one day you drink coffee less than usual, then suddenly you...

Dermatitis Herpetiformis: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis

Derma is a word of Greek origin, meaning skin. Dermatitis is an inflammatory disease of the skin. Herpetic, or herpetiform dermatitis is a chronic dermatosis of an unclear etiology characterized by a fairly long recurrent course with a paroxysmal appearance on the skin of a human body of an itchy polymorphous rash in the form of vesicles, papules, blisters, urticaria elements grouped in rings, semirings and garlands. The forms of Duhring's dermatitis are very diverse, but for all, itching and burning are common in the area of rashes on the skin. At the beginning of the disease the skin turns red, then small bubbles appear later. When herpetiform dermatitis usually affects the smooth...

Dermatomyositis: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Dermatomyositis or Wagner’s disease is complex but salvageable disease. It mainly affects bone and muscle tissue, motion function, skin and muscle syndrome is seen. It’s a very rare disease more typical among women of all ages. Dermatomyositis is connected with age associated changings in organism, thus the incidence of the disease has two age diapasons: the first starts from 5 to 15 years, the second begins at 40 and ends up to 60. Percentage shows that juvenile dermatomyositis affects 20-30% of all patients, idiopathic (primary) – 30-40% and paraneoplastic syndrome about 30%. JUVENILE_DERMATOMYOSITIS The disease is occurred by virus infection and solar radiation. Disease...

Diabetes Insipidus Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Non-diabetes mellitus is an endocrine disease that arises from the lack of an antidiuretic (vasopressive) hormone of the pituitary gland. Violation of kidney function leads to an increase in the amount of urine released per day (up to 40 liters). A person loses a lot of fluid. Dehydration of tissues develops with the subsequent dryness of the mucous membranes of the skin. In the body, the sodium level rises, which also leads to severe consequences. Symptoms of diabetes insipidus Increase in the amount of urine released per day (up to 40 liters). Strong thirst. Dry mouth. Strong urge to urinate. Sometimes diarrhea (in young children). Possible hypovolemic shock. Causes of...

Diarrhea: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatments

For an adult healthy person is characterized by daily emptying of the stomach, the mass of feces is 100-250 g, of which 80% is water. Diarrhea (diarrhea) - is too frequent emptying of the intestine with the release of liquefied and abundant (more than 250 g / day) feces, sometimes with an admixture of mucus. A large amount of liquid is lost, along with which salts of potassium, sodium, chlorine and other microelements necessary for normal vital activity of all organs are washed out. It is necessary to take into account the consistency of feces, their color and odor. Particular importance is the admixture of blood, pus or mucus in the feces, it is important to note whether the blood is mixed...

Difference between fibromas and lipomas

Tumors from adipose tissue and connective tissue are a degenerated "mother" tissue, which began to grow too much. Benign tumors of these tissues are called lipomas and fibromas. Almost all benign tumors are characterized by slow growth - they can grow several months or even years. Lipomas and fibromas can be observed in all parts of the body, especially tumors on the skin and subcutaneous tissue. Symptoms Lipoma: Mild painless. Not fused with surrounding tissues. Tumor formation can be freely moved back and forth. Lipoma is depicted in the first picture of this article. Fibroma: Hard, usually painless. It is visible on the skin. Sometimes the tumor rises above the skin....

Diphtheria: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease caused by the corynebacterium of diphtheria. The disease begins with the appearance of grayish-whitish, smooth, non-removable spatula covering the palatal arch and pharynx. The children are most affected by diphtheria. In our country, this disease is relatively rare, because Almost all children make preventive vaccinations. Vaccinations do not guarantee 100% protection against the disease, but greatly facilitate its course. The more people not vaccinated with diphtheria, the higher the risk of spreading the disease. In diphtheria, toxins, which are secreted by bacteria, are a big danger to life - substances that quickly enter the blood, which can...

Diseases of subcutaneous adipose tissue

Diseases of the subcutaneous adipose tissue are diseases of the elastic connective tissue of the muscles, bones of the skeleton, as well as tissue that is located under the epidermis and dermis (actually the skin). Fatty tissue consists of fat cells, alternating with fibers of connective tissue, nerve fibers and lymphatic vessels. In the subcutaneous tissue are also blood vessels that feed the human skin. Fats are deposited in the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the human body. If fats get into surrounding tissues, then the chemical structure of the latter changes, which causes an inflammatory reaction with the appearance of dense nodules (the so-called granulomas). Due to the appearance of...

Diseases of sweat glands

Sweat glands - skin glands that produce and emit sweat, are of two types - eccrine and apocrine. Ekkrinovye sweat glands produce a liquid that is 99% water. Through sweat ducts, sweat enters the skin surface. Apocrine glands begin to function only with the onset of puberty. They are localized in the armpits, in the genital area and anus, in the areola of the nipples of the mammary gland and in the external auditory canal. The secret of the apocrine glands contains a large number of protein substances. It is these glands that determine the smell of the body. Symptoms Increased sweating (hyperhidrosis). Minor perspiration (hypohidrosis). Absolute loss of sweating (anhidrosis). Light...

Dislocations: Causes, Diagnosis & Treatments

Dislocations, sprains, bruises and ruptures in which muscles and joints are damaged are traumas that are typical of people involved in sports. However, trauma can be obtained during rest. A dislocation is a violation of the integrity of the joint with a mutual displacement of the joint ends of the bones. Usually dislocation is accompanied by rupture of the joint capsule and ligaments, sometimes damage to the blood vessels, nerves and skin. The most common dislocation of the shoulder joint. Contusion - mechanical damage to soft tissues without compromising the integrity of the skin. With a bruise, the subcutaneous tissue, muscles and blood vessels are most damaged - after a while a...

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrates in the body are in the form of glucose. The normal concentration of glucose in the blood is 80-100 mg / 100 ml (or 3.3-3.5 mmol / l). The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma is regulated by two hormones of the pancreas. Glucose in the form of glycogen is deposited in the liver and, if necessary or under the influence of the hormone-glycogen, glycogen again decomposes into glucose. Then the blood glucose level increases, resulting in increased secretion of the hormone insulin, which lowers the glucose level in the blood. When the regulation of glucose in the blood is disturbed, the metabolism of all substances is disrupted. Due to lack of insulin, a person develops...

Disorders of consciousness: Causes, Types, Treatment

What is a disorder of consciousness? Disorders of consciousness are characterized by stunnedness, expressed in incomplete comprehension of what is happening, lack of logic in thinking, disorientation in time, place and situation, and also more or less pronounced amnesia. Violation of consciousness is caused by lesions of the brain stem, less often it occurs when the cerebral cortex is affected. The patient is absent-minded, fragmentally perceives the environment, but can not comprehend it: analyzing individual components, he can not combine them into one whole. Most patients have a feeling of "shroud before the eyes." Causes of mental disorders Disorders of consciousness are a...

Dissocial personality disorder. The symptoms, development, causes

Currently, dissocial personality disorder is considered one of the most controversial categories that often arise in the clinical field. Some argue that this is not a disease, but only a cover for criminal elements and scammers, and other experts - a real mental disorder. All psychopathic persons, suffering from dissocial personality disorder, are united in a separate group due to underdeveloped high moral feelings. This type of personality disorder stands out in a special category with the help of characteristic social criteria, including the inability to clearly follow social norms prevailing in society, and also to be law-abiding citizens. As a rule, sociopaths remain indifferent to...

Drowning Treatment: First Aid Information for Drowning

Drowning is a death from hypoxia (acute oxygen starvation), which occurs as a result of closing the respiratory tract with a liquid, most often water. When a person sinks, water enters the upper respiratory tract and expels air. Therefore, first of all, there is a so-called laryngospasm (spasm of vocal folds) - the path to the trachea closes, while respiration stops. Such flooding is called "dry". A person can be drowned in another way ("true" or aspirational flooding). If the victim has been in the water for too long and a significant amount of fluid has entered the respiratory tract, then oxygen starvation occurs, as a result, the vital reflex of stopping breathing does not work, the...

Drug Abuse and Addiction Causes, Symptoms, and Prevention Facts

What is drug dependence? The human body constantly has a big load. It must actively defend itself against pathogens of various diseases (infections, pathogens, etc.), overcome severe mental and physical stress, and much more. If the body itself is not able to cope with the problem, it can help drugs. However, each drug causes an undesirable side effect, which can be quite severe. It depends on the nature of the medicinal effect and on the physical condition of the person at the time of taking the medicine. The extremely serious side effect of many drugs is drug dependence. With prolonged use of drugs, the human body can get used to them, then to achieve the desired effect, it will be...

Drug Allergies: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Undesirable reactions caused by drugs can be divided into two groups: allergic and non-allergic. These reactions differ in variety - from non-dangerous, rapidly disappearing, reddening of the skin to severe diseases, in which there is a threat to life. Most often there are undesirable reactions of skin, sweat, sebaceous glands, hair, nails. The most common reactions caused by drugs include urticaria, Lyell's syndrome or Stevens-Johnson syndrome (in which large blisters appear and the skin flakes), and exanthema, characterized by a lesion of the skin with a clearly delineated inflammatory focus. Exanthema occurs after prolonged use of the drug. Allergy to medicines can be very dangerous....

Dust Allergy | Causes, Symptoms & Treatment

Home dust mites (saprophytes) refer to arachnids. There are different kinds of ticks - one of them live on plants, the masters of others are humans and animals. Ticks (excluding ixodids) are not bloodsucking insects. They feed on dandruff, hair, food and other organic substances (for example, grass or textile fibers). For a person, a scabby tick (Lat. Sarcoptes scabiei) is a danger. A home dust mite (Latin dermatophagoides pteronyssimus) creates a growing danger to human health. These pincers are so small that they can be seen only with the help of a microscope. They feed on not only dead skin particles and hair, but also other organic substances - tissue fibers, cellulose, bacteria, mold...

Dysfunction of the male sex glands

What is the dysfunction of the male sex glands? Eggs are a pair of ovoid glands. The function of the testicles is the formation of male sex cells-spermatozoa, as well as the release into the blood of male sex hormones, which form secondary sexual characteristics. Violation of a function of the testicles is the cause of infertility in men, as well as the violation of the hormonal balance of the whole organism. With this violation, both or one testicle can be affected. Congenital dysfunction of testicles Violations of the function of male sex glands are divided into congenital and acquired. One of the most common congenital anomalies is the absence of one or both testicles. It is...