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ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Damage to the brain in children

The brain begins to form at the end of the first month of pregnancy. For the multiplication of cells and the formation of their interrelations, constant provision of cells with oxygen, glucose and other substances is required. Violations of the formation of the brain in the fetus, brain damage during pregnancy, childbirth or in the first month after birth are called early brain injuries. This concept covers various diseases and forms of disability - from mild disruption of movements and speech to mental or physical retardation. Symptoms Delayed development. Violations of speech and behavior. Movement disorders. Disturbance of swallowing. Absence of normal reflexes. Low...

Dandruff

Dandruff (from the Latin squamae) are visible, easily peeling particles of keratinized cells of the surface layer of the skin. With normal regeneration of the cells of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, their exfoliation takes place imperceptibly. Scales are of different shapes: pearly, layered, leaf-shaped, coarse, with pronounced peeling, firmly retained on the skin. Depending on the type and thickness, the scales can be whitish, yellowish, grayish-silver in color. Most often dandruff is formed on the skin of the scalp. Increased skin peeling can be simple (with a genetic predisposition associated with the activity of the sexual glands) and symptomatic (characteristic of certain skin...

Death of the brain

When the brain dies, all signs of the vital activity of the body disappear, for example, heartbeat, breathing, etc. In forensic medicine, such death is called social. When the neurons of the brain die, a person loses the ability to think, speak, feel, etc. This is an irreversible process. Symptoms Lack of breath. Heart failure. When performing electroencephalography, the device draws a "zero line". Pupils do not respond to light. Impossibility of determining the contrast medium in the brain. Causes A common cause of brain death is a deficiency of oxygen or blood. The brain can die as a result of poisoning, damage, inflammation (encephalitis). Loss of consciousness occurs with...

Depression

Depression (from Latin depressio - suppression) is a painful condition, manifested by a depressed, depressed mood with inhibition of thoughts, movements, and a violation of the activity of internal organs. This is a serious, recurrent, mental illness. Depression is one of the most common mental disorders. It affects about 25% of all people. Unlike the temporary decrease in the psychophysical tone that is characteristic of healthy people, depression is a state of absolute indifference to the environment, accompanied by a loss of inner motivations, interests, emotional reactions, "hardening" of the patient for hours in one posture. Depression deprives a person of the joy of life, makes him...

Dermatomyositis

Dermatomyositis or Wagner’s disease is complex but salvageable disease. It mainly affects bone and muscle tissue, motion function, skin and muscle syndrome is seen. It’s a very rare disease more typical among women of all ages. Dermatomyositis is connected with age associated changings in organism, thus the incidence of the disease has two age diapasons: the first starts from 5 to 15 years, the second begins at 40 and ends up to 60. Percentage shows that juvenile dermatomyositis affects 20-30% of all patients, idiopathic (primary) – 30-40% and paraneoplastic syndrome about 30%. JUVENILE_DERMATOMYOSITIS The disease is occurred by virus infection and solar radiation. Disease...

Diarrhea

For an adult healthy person is characterized by daily emptying of the stomach, the mass of feces is 100-250 g, of which 80% is water. Diarrhea (diarrhea) - is too frequent emptying of the intestine with the release of liquefied and abundant (more than 250 g / day) feces, sometimes with an admixture of mucus. A large amount of liquid is lost, along with which salts of potassium, sodium, chlorine and other microelements necessary for normal vital activity of all organs are washed out. It is necessary to take into account the consistency of feces, their color and odor. Particular importance is the admixture of blood, pus or mucus in the feces, it is important to note whether the blood is mixed...

Diet and arthritis

One of the important components of combined treatment is healthy eating. Diet for joint diseases treatment must be planned very responsibly, since some products may seriously harm the whole organism and slow down therapy process. There are products which have quality to reduce the inflammation process in cartilage tissue and stop joint destruction. Healthy eating and diet won’t manage to cure the disease, but can dramatically supply the therapy, and provide patient’s organism with necessary vitamins. WEIGHT_CONTROL There is no special diet for those who suffer from arthritis, if only it is not gout. However, healthy nutrition is necessary. Firstly, it provides organism with vitamins,...

Diphtheria in children

Diphtheria is an acute infectious disease caused by the corynebacterium of diphtheria. The disease begins with the appearance of grayish-whitish, smooth, non-removable spatula covering the palatal arch and pharynx. The children are most affected by diphtheria. In our country, this disease is relatively rare, because Almost all children make preventive vaccinations. Vaccinations do not guarantee 100% protection against the disease, but greatly facilitate its course. The more people not vaccinated with diphtheria, the higher the risk of spreading the disease. In diphtheria, toxins, which are secreted by bacteria, are a big danger to life - substances that quickly enter the blood, which can...

Diseases

There are more than 20 species of various worms that can settle in the human body and cause disease. Symptoms and course of these diseases can be very different. Worms are parasites. There are several stages of development of worms. Some worms in the process of development change the "master". Symptoms of worms Itching in the anus. Eggs of worms in feces. Dark circles under the eyes, pallor. Anemia. Allergic skin diseases. Vomiting, diarrhea. Emaciation. Inflammation of the rectum (proctitis). Perianal eczema. Bed-wetting. Inflammation of the vagina. Violations of a nervous nature. Causes of worms Usually eggs or larvae of worms get into the human body with contaminated...

Diseases of subcutaneous adipose tissue

Diseases of the subcutaneous adipose tissue are diseases of the elastic connective tissue of the muscles, bones of the skeleton, as well as tissue that is located under the epidermis and dermis (actually the skin). Fatty tissue consists of fat cells, alternating with fibers of connective tissue, nerve fibers and lymphatic vessels. In the subcutaneous tissue are also blood vessels that feed the human skin. Fats are deposited in the subcutaneous fatty tissue of the human body. If fats get into surrounding tissues, then the chemical structure of the latter changes, which causes an inflammatory reaction with the appearance of dense nodules (the so-called granulomas). Due to the appearance of...

Diseases of sweat glands

Sweat glands - skin glands that produce and emit sweat, are of two types - eccrine and apocrine. Ekkrinovye sweat glands produce a liquid that is 99% water. Through sweat ducts, sweat enters the skin surface. Apocrine glands begin to function only with the onset of puberty. They are localized in the armpits, in the genital area and anus, in the areola of the nipples of the mammary gland and in the external auditory canal. The secret of the apocrine glands contains a large number of protein substances. It is these glands that determine the smell of the body. Symptoms Increased sweating (hyperhidrosis). Minor perspiration (hypohidrosis). Absolute loss of sweating (anhidrosis). Light...

Diseases of the heart muscle

The heart is a hollow muscular body the size of a fist, its walls are formed mainly by the transversely striated cardiac muscle. The septum divides the heart into the right and left halves, each of which is formed by the atrium and the ventricle. The direction of blood flow inside the main organ of our circulatory system is controlled by valves. Individual fibers of the heart muscle are connected to the network, the walls of their cells are permeable. Thanks to this, the heart can quickly contract. What are the diseases of the heart muscle? Heart diseases are congenital or acquired diseases that result in a change in the heart muscle. Depending on the reason, the so-called. Idiopathic...

Diseases of the nails

Nails, as well as hair, are derived from the skin. They are not equipped with either blood vessels or nerves, they consist of dead horny mass. The outer part of the nail is called the body, and its back part is called the root. The white section, located at the base of the body of the nail and having the shape of a crescent, is called a nail lunatic. The state of nails is heavily influenced by natural aging processes, as a result of which nails lose strength, become brittle. In addition, they may appear longitudinal grooves, sometimes resembling tiles. The most common nail disease is the paronychia. It is an infectious inflammation of the skin surrounding the nail plate on the finger of...

Diseases of the thymus gland

Thymus gland (thymus, thymus) is the central organ of the immune system of vertebrates. It is located in the thoracic cavity in the region of the anterior mediastinum, somewhat above the pericardium. The thymus gland of newborns is large, reaches the fourth rib and is attached at the level of the sternum. This is an organ that grows up to 10 years in size, and after 18 years begins to decrease. Definitely thymus is one of the most important and necessary organs for the formation and activity of the human immune system. What are thymus diseases? There is a congenital insufficiency of the thymus gland function, its dystopia (when the thymus is not in its place). Sometimes the thymus...

Dislocations, bruises and sprains

Dislocations, sprains, bruises and ruptures in which muscles and joints are damaged are traumas that are typical of people involved in sports. However, trauma can be obtained during rest. A dislocation is a violation of the integrity of the joint with a mutual displacement of the joint ends of the bones. Usually dislocation is accompanied by rupture of the joint capsule and ligaments, sometimes damage to the blood vessels, nerves and skin. The most common dislocation of the shoulder joint. Contusion - mechanical damage to soft tissues without compromising the integrity of the skin. With a bruise, the subcutaneous tissue, muscles and blood vessels are most damaged - after a while a...

Disorders of carbohydrate metabolism

Carbohydrates in the body are in the form of glucose. The normal concentration of glucose in the blood is 80-100 mg / 100 ml (or 3.3-3.5 mmol / l). The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma is regulated by two hormones of the pancreas. Glucose in the form of glycogen is deposited in the liver and, if necessary or under the influence of the hormone-glycogen, glycogen again decomposes into glucose. Then the blood glucose level increases, resulting in increased secretion of the hormone insulin, which lowers the glucose level in the blood. When the regulation of glucose in the blood is disturbed, the metabolism of all substances is disrupted. Due to lack of insulin, a person develops...

Disorders of cerebral circulation

Violation of blood circulation is a concept that covers many disorders that cause circulatory failure of tissues. In this case, arterial blood flow to the tissues and the outflow of venous blood from them are disturbed. Due to the inadequacy of blood circulation, tissues begin to experience oxygen deficiency, cell metabolism is disrupted, and cells die. Violation of the cerebral circulation usually leads to a stroke. Symptoms of cerebral circulatory insufficiency Problems with vision - vagueness, double vision, reduced visual field. Speech disorders. Pathological changes in the perception of objects, people, phenomena. A person can not recognize his loved ones, use objects for other...

Disorders of consciousness

What is a disorder of consciousness? Disorders of consciousness are characterized by stunnedness, expressed in incomplete comprehension of what is happening, lack of logic in thinking, disorientation in time, place and situation, and also more or less pronounced amnesia. Violation of consciousness is caused by lesions of the brain stem, less often it occurs when the cerebral cortex is affected. The patient is absent-minded, fragmentally perceives the environment, but can not comprehend it: analyzing individual components, he can not combine them into one whole. Most patients have a feeling of "shroud before the eyes." Causes of mental disorders Disorders of consciousness are a...

Disorders of copper exchange

In the case of violations of copper exchange, the so-called. Wilson's disease, or hepatolenticular dystrophy (chronic destruction of the liver and lens of the eye). In the first place, the liver is affected. However, copper accumulates in other organs, mainly in the brain. With hepatolenticular dystrophy, deposits of copper appear in the liver, then hepatitis occurs. As a result, the patient can die because of liver failure. Poisoning has a particularly strong effect on the brain. There are clonic and tonic convulsions. There are contractures, as well as violent movements - violent laughter, crying, disorders of tendon reflexes, etc. From the psyche, memory loss, euphoria, tearfulness, a...

Disturbances of fat metabolism

Fat (lipid) metabolism is the production and splitting of fats and fat-like substances in the body, occurring primarily in the liver and adipose tissue. The mechanisms of regulatory processes are very complex; The most significant influence on them is exerted by hormones such as: insulin, adrenaline, thyroxine, and also sex hormones. There are two main disorders of fat metabolism: hypercholesterolemia (or hypercholesterolemia) and hypertriglyceridemia. In the first case, blood cholesterol significantly increases in blood plasma (in 100 ml of plasma contains more than 260 mg of cholesterol), and in the second - triglycerides (in 100 ml more than 172 mg of triglycerides). At the same time,...

Drug addiction

What is drug dependence? The human body constantly has a big load. It must actively defend itself against pathogens of various diseases (infections, pathogens, etc.), overcome severe mental and physical stress, and much more. If the body itself is not able to cope with the problem, it can help drugs. However, each drug causes an undesirable side effect, which can be quite severe. It depends on the nature of the medicinal effect and on the physical condition of the person at the time of taking the medicine. The extremely serious side effect of many drugs is drug dependence. With prolonged use of drugs, the human body can get used to them, then to achieve the desired effect, it will be...

dysentery

Bacterial dysentery (shigellosis) - an infectious disease with fecal-oral transmission mechanism, is caused by bacteria of the genus Shigella. For shigellosis characteristic heavy diarrhea. Perhaps a strong lesion of the mucous membrane of the colon until necrosis, in extreme cases - perforation of the intestine. Infectious dose for dysentery is very small. Possible violations of blood circulation, damage to the nervous system, even paralysis of muscles. Shigellosis is a rapidly spreading infection. In connection with the possibility of the epidemic in each case of the disease the doctor must inform the competent medical authorities. Outbreaks of shigellosis are often found in closed...

Dysfunction of the male sex glands

What is the dysfunction of the male sex glands? Eggs are a pair of ovoid glands. The function of the testicles is the formation of male sex cells-spermatozoa, as well as the release into the blood of male sex hormones, which form secondary sexual characteristics. Violation of a function of the testicles is the cause of infertility in men, as well as the violation of the hormonal balance of the whole organism. With this violation, both or one testicle can be affected. Congenital dysfunction of testicles Violations of the function of male sex glands are divided into congenital and acquired. One of the most common congenital anomalies is the absence of one or both testicles. It is...