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ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Hallucinations: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Hallucination is a false sensation of something that does not really exist. Hallucinations can be visual, taste, auditory, tactile, or olfactory. When schizophrenia is often observed auditory hallucinations - patients hear voices, noise, laughter. The presence of olfactory hallucinations is characteristic of certain types of convulsions and neoplasms. The patient is convinced of the reality of what is happening, which is the hallmark of hallucinations. Usually hallucinations cause the patient unpleasant sensations or even fear. The patient, suffering from schizophrenia, lives in the world of his delusional fantasies and hallucinations. Imaginary perceptions are also characteristic of healthy...

Hallux Valgus deformity

Hallux Valgus is valgus deformity of the big toe; this disease is characterized by the deviation of metatarsal first toe and other toes. It looks like a thick formation near the first toe, thus it’s popularly called a bunion.  CAUSES transverse flat foot is the basic cause of Hallux Valgus. It disorders the flexible function of the foot, which misbalances the tension of legs and causes foot deformation. uncomfortable footwear may support the deformation as well as become its main cause. The disease is mostly caused by a footwear with high heels and pointed toes, thus three fourth of patients are women. Hallux Valgus usually develops at the age of 30-40. inborn weakness of...

Hay Fever Treatment, Home Remedies & Symptoms

Hay fever is an allergic disease caused by the inhalation of plant pollen. Manifestations: runny nose, conjunctivitis, asthmatic attacks. The immune system protects the body from foreign agents (allergens). However, the immune system of some people reacts too sensitively even to substances that are harmless to the human body. One of the manifestations of this hypersensitivity is an allergic rhinitis. Hay fever is acute, usually caused by the flowering of cereals, less often by the pollen of flowers and trees. A special group of allergens are physical factors - heat, cold, mechanical irritation. The occurrence of a cold in the morning or afternoon is affected by changes in weather conditions,...

Headaches: Causes, treatment, and types

What is a headache? Headache is a very common ailment that can manifest itself as an independent disease. However, most often it is a symptom of other diseases. Headache can be local or diffuse, for example, dull, aching, persistent, stubborn, of a different nature - pulsating, burning, shrill, almost unbearable, covering the forehead, whiskey and parietal area. Only one side of the head can hurt. In some cases, it manifests itself at certain times of the day (for example, at night, in the morning or in the afternoon), in others it does not depend on the time of day. In addition, the headache over time can become chronic. The reason for the pain is not a change in the substance of...

Hearing Loss: Causes, Types, Signs & Symptoms

Hearing loss - sudden or gradual hearing loss. It is characterized by a disturbance in the function of the sound-conducting or sound-receiving system. If the function of the sound-conducting system is disturbed, the ear canal or the middle ear is affected. The sound-receiving function is disrupted as a result of damage to the inner ear, pre-collar nerve or auditory center of the brain. With age, hearing loss develops in almost all people. For example, if a young person hears sounds with a frequency of up to 20,000 Hz, an elderly person can hear sounds with a frequency not exceeding 5000 Hz. Symptoms Deafness to high sounds. In the presence of a noise background, a deaf person does not...

Heart Disease: Symptoms & Types

Heart defects are congenital or acquired damages of the heart valves. In humans and mammals, 4 heart valves: tricuspid, bivalve, or mitral, and 2 semilunar. The bivalve (mitral) valve is formed by two valves, which are attached to the edges of the left atrioventricular aperture. Through it, the blood passes from the atrium into the ventricle, but the valve prevents its reverse current. The aortic valve - located between the left ventricle and the aorta, consists of 3 half-moon leaves, they prevent the return of blood from the aorta into the ventricle. The tricuspid valve consists of three valves that divide the right atrium and right ventricle. He does not allow the return of blood from...

Heartburn (Acid Reflux): Symptoms, Relief, Remedies & Causes

What is heartburn? Heartburn - it's pain or discomfort, usually burning character, experienced by a person in the upper abdomen and lower chest (or behind the breastbone). Sometimes heartburn spreads in the direction from the stomach to the throat. It happens that it is accompanied by excessive salivation, a bitter or sour taste in the mouth. The main cause of heartburn is a loose closure of the muscular gates, or a lack of cardia. As a rule, heartburn causes overeating (especially, abundant consumption of too sweet, fatty, spicy or acidic foods). The cause of heartburn can also be increased acidity of the stomach. The stomach is protected from its corrosive effect, and the...

Helminth infections: diagnosis and treatment

There are more than 20 species of various worms that can settle in the human body and cause disease. Symptoms and course of these diseases can be very different. Worms are parasites. There are several stages of development of worms. Some worms in the process of development change the "master". Symptoms of worms Itching in the anus. Eggs of worms in feces. Dark circles under the eyes, pallor. Anemia. Allergic skin diseases. Vomiting, diarrhea. Emaciation. Inflammation of the rectum (proctitis). Perianal eczema. Bed-wetting. Inflammation of the vagina. Violations of a nervous nature. Causes of worms Usually eggs or larvae of worms get into the human body with contaminated...

Hemangioma: Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Hemangioma - a tumor-like formation in the skin or in the mucous membrane. Hemangioma can be flat, in the form of a nodule or an eminence, and also can be similar to a birthmark. Sometimes on it you can consider a kind of drawing. Hemangioma is the most frequent vascular tumor, it consists of abnormally formed blood vessels - arteries, veins or capillaries. When pressed, it turns pale. Usually occurs in children, adolescents and the elderly. These tumors can occur on any part of the human body, but are more often located on the face, forehead and neck. Symptoms There are different in form, color and size of hemangioma: flat or towering above the skin, from light red to bluish color,...

Hemorrhoids: Signs, Diagnosis, and Treatment

Hemorrhoids are varicose veins of the submucosal veins in the lower part of the rectum. Hemorrhoidal nodes are external and internal. In developed countries, approximately 50% of residents have hemorrhoidal nodes. Half of them have some symptoms of this disease, and only one in two needs treatment. Sedentary lifestyle, diseases of the endocrine system, aging of the body, overeating and malnutrition, as well as alcoholism contribute to the emergence of hemorrhoids. Causes Hemorrhoids develop with congenital or acquired weakness of the venous wall, due to obstructed venous outflow (for example, as a result of a tumor, pregnancy, accumulation of hard fecal masses with persistent...

High blood pressure: Causes, symptoms, and treatments

The blood pressure of an adult is considered to be elevated if, for two consecutive days, the average figure exceeds 149/90 mmHg - this limit is set by WHO. For physicians, the lower indicator, the diastolic pressure that occurs during relaxation of the heart muscle, is more important. Optimum blood pressure -120/80 mm Hg. St., Normal - 130/85 mm Hg. Art. Hypertension is of three degrees: mild - 140-159 / 90-99 mm Hg. St, average - 160-179 / 100-109 mm Hg. Art. And high - 180-200 / 110-119 mm Hg. Art. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). The diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg. St means that the mercury column has risen to a mark of 90 mm. Modern pressure measuring...

Hip Bursitis Treatment, Symptoms & Exercises

Trochanteric bursa of the gluteus maximus muscle is located on the buttocks under large muscle of sit bone. Trochanteric bursitis – is the inflammation of synovial bursa. This disease belongs to orthopedic joint diseases in medicine, its development leads to accumulation of inflamed liquid in joints. CAUSES Causes and factors of the disease appearance may be traumas or tenotomy. But factors which give start for disease development are: sedentary lifestyle; hypothermia; overweight; specific trauma or deformation, when as a result one leg became shorter than another. SYMPTOMS The most typical symptom during disease diagnostics is hip pain; it can be a gradually growing pain or...

Histrionic personality disorder: symptoms, treatment

Hysterical personality disorder (or hysteria) is a mental disorder in which the patient is extremely emotional, requires constant attention to his person and can not properly respond to the world around him. Such a person evaluates himself too highly, not counting the neurotic disorders of the disease. In psychoanalysis, a hysterical personality disorder is a state of a person with a hysterical personality type that is at the borderline level of a personal organization. The movements of a person suffering from hysteria are sharp, the voice is very loud, sometimes indistinct. Behavior - mock, unnatural. For example, the psychologist Kernberg calls people suffering from this kind of...

HIV and AIDS: Causes, symptoms, and treatments

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) is a secondary immunodeficiency syndrome that develops as a result of HIV infection. HIV infection is an infection caused by a retrovirus. It reproduces very quickly and is incredibly volatile. It can be found in all liquid media of the body: sperm, saliva, vaginal discharge, blood, urine. The disease affects the human immune system. AIDS is not a common infectious disease, which is characterized by its specific specific symptoms. Here there is a complex of symptoms that can worsen and disappear. From the moment of HIV infection to AIDS, it can take more than 10 years. Symptoms Fever. Fast fatiguability. Loss in weight. Repeated infectious...

Hodgkin's Disease: Symptoms, Diagnosis, & Treatment

Lymphogranulomatosis (Hodgkin's disease) is a tumor disease of the lymphatic system, characterized by malignant hyperplasia of the lymphoid tissue with the formation of lymph nodes in the lymph nodes and internal organs. The lymphatic system is a complex of vessels that carry electrolytes, water, proteins, and the like with lymph from the tissue fluid to the bloodstream. It is formed by lymph nodes and vessels, the spleen, thymus gland (thymus) and bone marrow. The lymphatic system is part of the vascular system and complements the venous system, participates in the metabolism of the body and carries away from the cells and tissues various products of vital activity, as well as foreign...

Home remedies for bursitis

Nowadays, joint diseases are quite widespread. One of these diseases is bursitis. The inflammation process in synovial bursa, which caused by defensive reaction of organism on fluid accumulation, is typical for bursitis. The highest risks of being affected by bursitis have middle-aged people and professional sportsmen. Localization of bursitis may be any joint: feet and ankle or the whole shoulder. CAUSES Causes of the mentioned disease are various and mostly caused by the influence of pathogen factors on a joint: trauma; joint excessive stress; heavy weight lifting; infectious microorganisms in synovial bursa; long-term sports activity like bicycling, gymnastics and football....

How Can We Diagnose and Treat Osteomyelitis of the Jaws

Osteomyelitis of the jaw is a purulent-necrotic process of infectious nature that develops in the bones, as well as in the tissues surrounding it. The inflammatory process begins to develop actively after the infection enters the bone tissue.ClassificationThere are several types of osteomyelitis of the jaw taking into account the source of infection. Odontogenic osteomyelitis of the jaw is a serious complication of advanced dental caries. According to statistics, this type of osteomyelitis is diagnosed in about 75% of cases. The disease develops after the infection from the carious cavity enters the pulp, and then into the root of the tooth. Then it also grabs the bone tissue. Approximately...

Hydrocele: Causes, Types, and Treatments

Hydrocele (the Greek "hydor" - fluid and "kele" - swelling), or edema of the testicle shells is a disease in which fluid accumulates between the leaves of the testicle shells. Usually the volume of accumulated liquid is several milliliters, but it can reach up to 2.5-3 liters. The dropsy of the testicle shells is congenital and acquired. Congenital hydrocele is mainly found in children, and acquired hydrocele in young men under the age of 30. The main cause of congenital disease is the non-involution of the vaginal process of the peritoneum, along which the liquid from the peritoneum enters the scrotum. Usually during the first year of the child's life, the appendage of the peritoneum...

Hydrocephalus: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Hydrocephalus is a dropsy of the brain, an excessive accumulation of cerebrospinal fluid (cerebrospinal fluid) in the ventricles of the brain and subshell spaces. A newborn appears with an abnormally large head or it begins to increase in the first months of life. A dropsy of the brain can also occur in adults, i.e. Be not congenital, but acquired. Any hydrocephalus over time causes severe consequences and disrupts the development of the child, and the progressive hydrocephalus of the brain can be life threatening. If the disease manifested itself before the birth of the child, then the danger arises for the future mother. Symptoms Headaches, visual disturbances. Vomiting....

Hydronephrosis: Causes, Symptoms, and Diagnosis

Hydronephrosis is a disease related to diseases of the kidneys and urinary tracts, characterized by the defeat of the kidney tissue and the deterioration of the organ. At the heart of the disease is a violation of the outflow of urine, which leads to an increase in hydrostatic pressure and expansion in the cup-and-pelvic system. The work of kidney tissue is the formation of urine, which enters the cup-lohan system. After accumulation, the urine enters the ureter and further into the bladder. With hydronephrosis, this conductivity is disturbed, and urine accumulates significantly more than normal, while the parenchyma (kidney tissue) continues its function by feeding urine to the overflowed...

Hyperhidrosis: Causes, Symptoms, and Effective Treatments

Hyperhidrosis is an intense sweating for a variety of reasons. The word itself comes from the Latin words "hyper" - elevated and "hydro" - water. In a literal translation, the complex medical term of hyperhidrosis is increased sweating. It is natural for a person to sweat, but usual sweating is not a disease, but a natural reaction of the body to fear, emotions, heat. But in the case of hyperhidrosis, everything is different: even at the thought of hands and handshakes, arms, sweat appears instantly on your hands, just at the thought. Symptoms Sweating at the thought of handshakes, hugs. Sweating with excitement, even small. Intensive sweating, when a person came from a frosty...

Hyperprolactinemia Treatment & Management

When the human body produces and releases too much hormone-prolactin into the blood, hyperprolactinemia arises. Prolactin is formed in the anterior pituitary gland. In men, prolactin stimulates the growth of the prostate (prostate) and seminal vesicles, indirectly affecting the formation of the seed. In women, prolactin stimulates the growth and development of mammary glands. Especially important is prolactin during pregnancy and, breast-feeding: it stimulates the production of milk after childbirth. The release of this hormone into the blood is controlled by the hypothalamus, the center of the regulation of the pituitary hormones. Symptoms of hyperprolactinemia In men: Decreased sex...

Hyperthyroidism: Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Thyroid hormones regulate the metabolism in the human body. Isolating hormones in the blood, the thyroid stimulates the work of all organs. When a person is healthy, such stimulation is very useful, for example, when preparing for exams or for fighting infection. However, there are various diseases in which the thyroid gland of the patient for a long time releases too many hormones. A man uses so much of his energy that, despite his appetite and sufficient intake of food, he is observed to lose weight. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism Nervousness. Tremor. Cardiopalmus. Itching. Diarrhea. Emotional instability. Poor tolerance of heat, sweating. Weight loss, despite the "wolfish"...

Hypertrichosis (Werewolf Syndrome): Causes, Treatments, and Types

Hypertrichosis is excessive hair growth. As you know, hair is a derivative of the epidermis of the skin of mammals and humans, whose roots are located in the thickness of the skin. In humans up to 8 months of uterine development the body is covered with primary (fruity) hair, by the time of birth they remain only on the head, eyebrows, eyelashes. Replacement of primary hair secondary ends, usually after birth. At the beginning of the puberty period, the intermedial hair is replaced by the final or terminal hair. There are three types of hair of an adult: Long - it's hair on the head, axillary hollows and genitals, as well as the mustache and beard of men. Bristly - short, relatively...

HYPERTROPHY AND DYSTROPHY: Symptoms, Causes

Hypotrophy is a chronic nutritional disorder in children, manifested in weight loss, loss or insufficiency of the increase in body weight, accompanied by a number of painful disorders. It can be congenital and acquired. Congenital malnutrition is caused by maternal diseases, bad habits of pregnant women, abnormal placenta position, etc. Acquired hypotrophy is manifested when the body receives too little nutrients or is not absorbed. Alimentary dystrophy is the exhaustion of the body of children and adults, developing mainly as a result of prolonged malnutrition. The causes and mechanisms of depletion of the body during hypotrophy and alimentary dystrophy are similar. Symptoms...

Hyperventilation: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

What is hyperventilation? Hyperventilation is an abnormally fast breathing at rest. This symptom refers to a particular disease, so it is usually not talking about hyperventilation, but about the syndrome of hyperventilation. In addition to rapid breathing, the patient has a so-called "crawling sensation" at the fingertips. When hyperventilation syndrome may occur seizures. This disease is characterized by a certain position of hands and hands - the arms are bent, and the tips of all five fingers are pressed together. This is a symptom of the "hand of an obstetrician." All these symptoms manifest very quickly within a few seconds. They are not dangerous and disappear as quickly as they...

Hypothyroidism (Underactive Thyroid): Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

About hypothyroidism - the weakening of the thyroid gland is usually spoken in cases where the iron produces an insufficient amount of hormones. This leads to a metabolic disorder. Symptoms of hypothyroidism Impaired cardiac function. Hypersensitivity to cold. Weakness, drowsiness, apathy. Dryness of the skin. Mortification of the throat. Deafness. Weight gain. Edema. Causes of hypothyroidism One of the causes of hypothyroidism is the inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis). Usually it is autoimmune in nature or manifested after some kind of organic infection. Weakening of the function occurs after removal of the gland or treatment with radioactive iodine, as well...

Hypovolemic Shock: Causes, Symptoms & Diagnosis

All body systems function normally only if the heart feeds enough blood into the circulatory system. If, for some reason, this process is disrupted for some reason, then hypovolemic shock is manifested. It is also called "cold", as it is characterized by a spasm of small blood vessels and a weakening of the circulation of the extremities, which leads to their cooling. This condition is dangerous for the patient's life. Hypovolemic shock can occur suddenly or develop gradually, within a few minutes. The shock comes because the brain and other organs with blood receive insufficient amounts of oxygen. First, the human body tries to compensate for the lack of oxygen by releasing into the blood...

Hysteria

What is hysteria? Hysteria is a mental illness, a pathological form of a person's reaction to an untenable or unacceptable situation for some reason. It is distinguished by the special suggestibility and self-suggestiveness of patients with a distinct tendency to "escape to illness", as well as by a marked demonstrativeness and theatricality of behavior with the search for sympathy and attention of others. Hysteria occurs in neuroses, all sorts of current somatic diseases, neurological and mental, organic insufficiency of the central nervous system (in the presence of severe infections or brain injuries). It used to be that only women suffer from hysteria. Symptoms of hysteria...