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ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Hallucinations

Hallucination is a false sensation of something that does not really exist. Hallucinations can be visual, taste, auditory, tactile, or olfactory. When schizophrenia is often observed auditory hallucinations - patients hear voices, noise, laughter. The presence of olfactory hallucinations is characteristic of certain types of convulsions and neoplasms. The patient is convinced of the reality of what is happening, which is the hallmark of hallucinations. Usually hallucinations cause the patient unpleasant sensations or even fear. The patient, suffering from schizophrenia, lives in the world of his delusional fantasies and hallucinations. Imaginary perceptions are also characteristic of healthy...

hay fever

Hay fever is an allergic disease caused by the inhalation of plant pollen. Manifestations: runny nose, conjunctivitis, asthmatic attacks. The immune system protects the body from foreign agents (allergens). However, the immune system of some people reacts too sensitively even to substances that are harmless to the human body. One of the manifestations of this hypersensitivity is an allergic rhinitis. Hay fever is acute, usually caused by the flowering of cereals, less often by the pollen of flowers and trees. A special group of allergens are physical factors - heat, cold, mechanical irritation. The occurrence of a cold in the morning or afternoon is affected by changes in weather conditions,...

Headache

What is a headache? Headache is a very common ailment that can manifest itself as an independent disease. However, most often it is a symptom of other diseases. Headache can be local or diffuse, for example, dull, aching, persistent, stubborn, of a different nature - pulsating, burning, shrill, almost unbearable, covering the forehead, whiskey and parietal area. Only one side of the head can hurt. In some cases, it manifests itself at certain times of the day (for example, at night, in the morning or in the afternoon), in others it does not depend on the time of day. In addition, the headache over time can become chronic. The reason for the pain is not a change in the substance of...

Hearing loss

Hearing loss - sudden or gradual hearing loss. It is characterized by a disturbance in the function of the sound-conducting or sound-receiving system. If the function of the sound-conducting system is disturbed, the ear canal or the middle ear is affected. The sound-receiving function is disrupted as a result of damage to the inner ear, pre-collar nerve or auditory center of the brain. With age, hearing loss develops in almost all people. For example, if a young person hears sounds with a frequency of up to 20,000 Hz, an elderly person can hear sounds with a frequency not exceeding 5000 Hz. Symptoms Deafness to high sounds. In the presence of a noise background, a deaf person does not...

Heart diseases

Heart defects are congenital or acquired damages of the heart valves. In humans and mammals, 4 heart valves: tricuspid, bivalve, or mitral, and 2 semilunar. The bivalve (mitral) valve is formed by two valves, which are attached to the edges of the left atrioventricular aperture. Through it, the blood passes from the atrium into the ventricle, but the valve prevents its reverse current. The aortic valve - located between the left ventricle and the aorta, consists of 3 half-moon leaves, they prevent the return of blood from the aorta into the ventricle. The tricuspid valve consists of three valves that divide the right atrium and right ventricle. He does not allow the return of blood from...

Heart failure

With some diseases, there is a violation of the heart. The pathological condition caused by the incompetence of the heart as a pump that provides blood supply to tissues and organs is called heart failure. Heart failure is not an independent disease, but a consequence of various disorders, due to which the heart can not push into the artery sufficient for normal metabolism of blood or take blood from the veins. With heart failure during exercise, heart function does not increase (reduced stroke volume), ventricular failure develops. As a result, the heart can develop reverse blood flow, accompanied by an overflow of the lungs and liver blood. Heart failure may be right ventricular, left...

Heart rhythm disturbances

Parts of the heart regularly contract and relax. At first the atria contract, then the ventricles. This sequence is called the heart rhythm. In the heart are intracardial mechanisms of rhythm regulation. External regulation of heart function is conditioned by the activity of the autonomic nervous system and humoral factors. Violation of the heart rhythm leads to a disorder of the heart. Disturbances can be different: decrease in heart rate - bradycardia; Heart palpitations - tachycardia; Violation of the frequency or sequence of contractions - arrhythmia. Symptoms Attacks of palpitation. Dizziness. Nausea. Cold sweat. Convulsions. Absence of heartbeats. Cardiopalmus. Causes...

Heartburn

What is heartburn? Heartburn - it's pain or discomfort, usually burning character, experienced by a person in the upper abdomen and lower chest (or behind the breastbone). Sometimes heartburn spreads in the direction from the stomach to the throat. It happens that it is accompanied by excessive salivation, a bitter or sour taste in the mouth. The main cause of heartburn is a loose closure of the muscular gates, or a lack of cardia. As a rule, heartburn causes overeating (especially, abundant consumption of too sweet, fatty, spicy or acidic foods). The cause of heartburn can also be increased acidity of the stomach. The stomach is protected from its corrosive effect, and the...

Hemangioma

Hemangioma - a tumor-like formation in the skin or in the mucous membrane. Hemangioma can be flat, in the form of a nodule or an eminence, and also can be similar to a birthmark. Sometimes on it you can consider a kind of drawing. Hemangioma is the most frequent vascular tumor, it consists of abnormally formed blood vessels - arteries, veins or capillaries. When pressed, it turns pale. Usually occurs in children, adolescents and the elderly. These tumors can occur on any part of the human body, but are more often located on the face, forehead and neck. Symptoms There are different in form, color and size of hemangioma: flat or towering above the skin, from light red to bluish color,...

Hemorrhage in the brain

Hemorrhage in the brain is the ingress of blood into the brain tissue due to rupture of the blood vessel or a significant increase in the conductivity of the walls of the blood vessels of the brain. As a result of intracerebral hemorrhage and destruction of the nervous tissue, a hemorrhagic stroke occurs. Symptoms of hemorrhage in the brain - headache, vomiting, a rare pulse and a disorder of consciousness. In severe cases - paralysis, epileptic seizures. Sometimes hemorrhage is associated with rupture of the blood vessel of the meninges. Then the blood is distributed over the surface of the brain, hematomas are formed. The human brain is surrounded by cerebrospinal fluid (cerebral fluid)...

Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are varicose veins of the submucosal veins in the lower part of the rectum. Hemorrhoidal nodes are external and internal. In developed countries, approximately 50% of residents have hemorrhoidal nodes. Half of them have some symptoms of this disease, and only one in two needs treatment. Sedentary lifestyle, diseases of the endocrine system, aging of the body, overeating and malnutrition, as well as alcoholism contribute to the emergence of hemorrhoids. Causes Hemorrhoids develop with congenital or acquired weakness of the venous wall, due to obstructed venous outflow (for example, as a result of a tumor, pregnancy, accumulation of hard fecal masses with persistent...

Herpetiform dermatitis

Derma is a word of Greek origin, meaning skin. Dermatitis is an inflammatory disease of the skin. Herpetic, or herpetiform dermatitis is a chronic dermatosis of an unclear etiology characterized by a fairly long recurrent course with a paroxysmal appearance on the skin of a human body of an itchy polymorphous rash in the form of vesicles, papules, blisters, urticaria elements grouped in rings, semirings and garlands. The forms of Duhring's dermatitis are very diverse, but for all, itching and burning are common in the area of rashes on the skin. At the beginning of the disease the skin turns red, then small bubbles appear later. When herpetiform dermatitis usually affects the smooth...

High blood pressure

The blood pressure of an adult is considered to be elevated if, for two consecutive days, the average figure exceeds 149/90 mmHg - this limit is set by WHO. For physicians, the lower indicator, the diastolic pressure that occurs during relaxation of the heart muscle, is more important. Optimum blood pressure -120/80 mm Hg. St., Normal - 130/85 mm Hg. Art. Hypertension is of three degrees: mild - 140-159 / 90-99 mm Hg. St, average - 160-179 / 100-109 mm Hg. Art. And high - 180-200 / 110-119 mm Hg. Art. Blood pressure is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg). The diastolic pressure is 90 mm Hg. St means that the mercury column has risen to a mark of 90 mm. Modern pressure measuring...

Home dust mite

Home dust mites (saprophytes) refer to arachnids. There are different kinds of ticks - one of them live on plants, the masters of others are humans and animals. Ticks (excluding ixodids) are not bloodsucking insects. They feed on dandruff, hair, food and other organic substances (for example, grass or textile fibers). For a person, a scabby tick (Lat. Sarcoptes scabiei) is a danger. A home dust mite (Latin dermatophagoides pteronyssimus) creates a growing danger to human health. These pincers are so small that they can be seen only with the help of a microscope. They feed on not only dead skin particles and hair, but also other organic substances - tissue fibers, cellulose, bacteria, mold...

Home remedies for bursitis

Nowadays, joint diseases are quite widespread. One of these diseases is bursitis. The inflammation process in synovial bursa, which caused by defensive reaction of organism on fluid accumulation, is typical for bursitis. The highest risks of being affected by bursitis have middle-aged people and professional sportsmen. Localization of bursitis may be any joint: feet and ankle or the whole shoulder. CAUSES Causes of the mentioned disease are various and mostly caused by the influence of pathogen factors on a joint: trauma; joint excessive stress; heavy weight lifting; infectious microorganisms in synovial bursa; long-term sports activity like bicycling, gymnastics and football....

Horse Syndrome

Connes syndrome is a combination of muscle weakness, anomalously strong thirst, the production of a large amount of urine and hypertension, which arises from the excessive secretion of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. Symptoms may appear during pregnancy. This rare disease, sometimes also called "primary aldosteronism," was discovered in 1955 by the American physician Jerome Conn. Women are exposed to this hormonal disease twice as often as men. Usually they get sick at the age of 30-50 years. Symptoms of Connes syndrome Dizziness. Fatigue. High blood pressure. Muscle weakness. Heart rhythm disturbances. Abundant urination. Causes of Connes Syndrome Conn's...

How to manage an acute gout attack

One of the most widespread joint diseases is gout. This disease is associated with metabolism disorder, which causes deposits of uric acid in joints – white powder. Previously, it was thought that only wealthy people can be affected by gout, since they could afford themselves a lot of foot and alcohol. But now it’s proved that any person can suffer from gout. The disease mostly affects middle-aged men. CAUSES Gout doesn’t occur without a reason. Heredity regarded as the basic factor of the disease occurrence. All other things are just supportive causes of signs of the disease. They are: other diseases that cause dysfunction of kidneys and liver; overweight; alcohol abuse;...

Hyperfunction of the adrenal glands

Endocrinology Hyperfunction of the adrenal glands The adrenal glands are the endocrine glands located above the kidneys. Each gland consists of an external cortical and inner medulla. In the outer layer, important groups of hormones are produced: Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone, deoxycorticosterone, etc.) are involved in the regulation of mineral metabolism. Glucocorticoids (cortisone, cortisol, corticosterone). Affect the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, inhibit the inflammatory reaction, have an antiallergic effect, control the reaction to stress. Androgens, or male sex hormones, are necessary for both the female and the male body. In the embryonic period, they...

Hyperprolactinemia

When the human body produces and releases too much hormone-prolactin into the blood, hyperprolactinemia arises. Prolactin is formed in the anterior pituitary gland. In men, prolactin stimulates the growth of the prostate (prostate) and seminal vesicles, indirectly affecting the formation of the seed. In women, prolactin stimulates the growth and development of mammary glands. Especially important is prolactin during pregnancy and, breast-feeding: it stimulates the production of milk after childbirth. The release of this hormone into the blood is controlled by the hypothalamus, the center of the regulation of the pituitary hormones. Symptoms of hyperprolactinemia In men: Decreased sex...

Hyperthyroidism

Thyroid hormones regulate the metabolism in the human body. Isolating hormones in the blood, the thyroid stimulates the work of all organs. When a person is healthy, such stimulation is very useful, for example, when preparing for exams or for fighting infection. However, there are various diseases in which the thyroid gland of the patient for a long time releases too many hormones. A man uses so much of his energy that, despite his appetite and sufficient intake of food, he is observed to lose weight. Symptoms of hyperthyroidism Nervousness. Tremor. Cardiopalmus. Itching. Diarrhea. Emotional instability. Poor tolerance of heat, sweating. Weight loss, despite the "wolfish"...

Hypertrichosis

Hypertrichosis is excessive hair growth. As you know, hair is a derivative of the epidermis of the skin of mammals and humans, whose roots are located in the thickness of the skin. In humans up to 8 months of uterine development the body is covered with primary (fruity) hair, by the time of birth they remain only on the head, eyebrows, eyelashes. Replacement of primary hair secondary ends, usually after birth. At the beginning of the puberty period, the intermedial hair is replaced by the final or terminal hair. There are three types of hair of an adult: Long - it's hair on the head, axillary hollows and genitals, as well as the mustache and beard of men. Bristly - short, relatively...

Hyperventilation

What is hyperventilation? Hyperventilation is an abnormally fast breathing at rest. This symptom refers to a particular disease, so it is usually not talking about hyperventilation, but about the syndrome of hyperventilation. In addition to rapid breathing, the patient has a so-called "crawling sensation" at the fingertips. When hyperventilation syndrome may occur seizures. This disease is characterized by a certain position of hands and hands - the arms are bent, and the tips of all five fingers are pressed together. This is a symptom of the "hand of an obstetrician." All these symptoms manifest very quickly within a few seconds. They are not dangerous and disappear as quickly as they...

HYPOTHRYOIDISM

About hypothyroidism - the weakening of the thyroid gland is usually spoken in cases where the iron produces an insufficient amount of hormones. This leads to a metabolic disorder. Symptoms of hypothyroidism Impaired cardiac function. Hypersensitivity to cold. Weakness, drowsiness, apathy. Dryness of the skin. Mortification of the throat. Deafness. Weight gain. Edema. Causes of hypothyroidism One of the causes of hypothyroidism is the inflammation of the thyroid gland (thyroiditis). Usually it is autoimmune in nature or manifested after some kind of organic infection. Weakening of the function occurs after removal of the gland or treatment with radioactive iodine, as well...

Hysteria

What is hysteria? Hysteria is a mental illness, a pathological form of a person's reaction to an untenable or unacceptable situation for some reason. It is distinguished by the special suggestibility and self-suggestiveness of patients with a distinct tendency to "escape to illness", as well as by a marked demonstrativeness and theatricality of behavior with the search for sympathy and attention of others. Hysteria occurs in neuroses, all sorts of current somatic diseases, neurological and mental, organic insufficiency of the central nervous system (in the presence of severe infections or brain injuries). It used to be that only women suffer from hysteria. Symptoms of hysteria...