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ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Malaria

Malaria is an acute infectious disease characterized by feverish attacks, enlargement of the liver, spleen, anemia. Carriers are females of a malarial mosquito. This disease is often found in Africa, Asia, Central and South America. In Europe, active foci of the disease are in the south of France. Disappearing foci are still found in Portugal, Italy, Spain, Greece. Symptoms of the disease Headache. Pain in the extremities. Fever, chills. Regular changes in body temperature. Pain in the upper abdominal cavity. Rigidity of muscles. Violations of consciousness. Vomiting of blood. Acute vascular insufficiency. The incubation period of malaria is 8-20 days. The initial stage of...

Malignant tumors of bones

Oncology Malignant tumors of bones Malignant tumors of bones and cartilage arise due to disruption of cell multiplication and cellular metabolism. The tumor penetrates into the surrounding tissues and depresses their activity. Cancer cells with blood or lymph flow are transferred to other organs, which contributes to the spread of the pathological process. Malignant tumors are divided into two large groups: carcinomas and sarcomas. Carcinomas affect the epithelial cells of the skin and internal organs. Carcinoma can develop in any tissue structure that contains epithelial cells. In bones and cartilage, consisting of connective tissue, there are no epithelial cells. Sarcomas are tumors...

Mania and delirium

What is mania and delirium? The mood of a person changes several times during the day. But he can control these mood changes. The inability of a person to control his mood is manifested by mental disorders - mania, depression. Mania is characterized by a change in mood, a lot of ideas, insomnia, exaggerated self-esteem. People with mania are extremely sensitive and irritable, their plans are often unrealistic and not feasible. Sometimes the illusion of unlimited power, supernatural powers, or power can turn into hallucinations. Variability of mood is accompanied by a change in thinking, speech, a violation of autonomic functions. Brad is a symptom of a mental disorder, manifested in...

Ménière's disease

Meniere's disease is characterized by the defeat of the inner ear. This disease most often affects men aged 25-30 years. The patient suddenly starts dizziness, accompanied by nausea and vomiting, he pale, covered with a cold sweat. Sharply reduced blood pressure, there is a noise in the ears, noticeably weaker hearing. The duration of the attack is from 1 to 6 hours, in rare cases - up to two weeks. Attacks are repeated with varying frequency - from once a week to several times a year. Ménière's disease is a progressive incurable disease. Symptoms Dizziness. Noise in ears. Hearing loss. Attacks lasting up to 3-6 hours. Nausea. This disease in most mulucha suffer from...

Meningioma of the brain

Meningioma of the brain is a benign tumor originating from cells of the arachnoid shell, less often from the cells of the pia mater or the stroma of the vascular plexus. Characterized by slow growth, compression and displacement of brain structures. Usually meningiomas appear at the age of 35-50 years. They make up about 20% of all brain tumors, are more common in women, can be the size of a fist and weigh up to 500 g. Usually they are soft like a sponge, but in the elderly it is possible to calcify them and turn into hard knots. Symptoms Symptoms depend on the size of the tumor and its location. Characteristic symptoms: Headache. A feeling of compression in the brain. Weakness,...

Mental retardation

What is mental retardation and debility? On the mental backwardness of man was mentioned even in the Talmud. However, it was only in 1905 that a basis was created for diagnosing and assessing mental retardation. The average IQ in a normal person is 100 points. Easy mental retardation is diagnosed with an intelligence ratio of 50-55 to 70 points. On average, one out of 200 newborns is mentally retarded. Degeneracy is a delay in mental development, a relatively light degree of oligophrenia. Morons are capable of learning, sometimes with good mechanical memory, assiduity and over-wise parents achieve good results in their studies. Mental retardation is a frequent enough deviation,...

Mesothelioma of the pleura

Pleural cancer (mesothelioma) is a malignant tumor that occurs in the pleura or peritoneum. Pleura - a thin serous membrane surrounding the lungs (visceral or pulmonary) and the internal surface of the thorax (parietal pleura). This serous membrane has a smooth, moist, shiny surface, due to the secretion of a small amount of fluid in it. The pleura is covered with mesothelium - a single-layered flat epithelium lining the serous membranes of the body cavities of vertebrates. Between the parental and visceral sheets of the pleura there is a pleural cavity with a small amount of liquid, which reduces the friction of the sheets with respiratory movements of the lungs, so that they can slide...

Metabolic disorders

The basis of metabolism is chemical reactions that occur in the human body. All substances for metabolic reactions, except oxygen, enter the body with food. Usually the body is dominated by the equilibrium of the processes of construction and splitting. However, this balance can be violated for various reasons. Causes of metabolic disorders Some metabolic disorders can be hereditary or result from organic diseases. However, very often metabolic disorders are caused by malnutrition, and are also possible with excess or deficiency of certain nutrients. Excess of some nutrients in the body occurs if a person consumes too much fatty foods. The lack of certain elements arises with strict...

Metastases with cancer

Metastases in cancer are new secondary foci of a malignant tumor, which are formed from the cells of the primary tumor focus that have fallen into other parts of the body. The process of transfer of malignant tumor cells through the blood and lymph vessels from the primary focus of the disease is called metastasis. The cancer of some organs is predisposed to metastasis in certain organs (for example, lung carcinoma - in the bone, adrenal glands). While the cancer of the internal organs has no symptoms, the secondary tumor is detected earlier than the primary one. Different types of cancer metastasize more often to the lungs, liver and bones. Diagnostics As soon as the doctor sets the...

Migraine

Migraine is a paroxysmal disease characterized by headaches, which can last from 4 to 72 hours. The pain is of a pulsating nature, accompanied by nausea, vomiting, and some visual impairment. Any physical activity worsens the patient's condition. During a migraine attack, you must observe bed rest, preferably in a darkened room. Complete rest and absence of any kind of stimuli is necessary. Symptoms Visual disturbances. Severe headaches. Increased sound and photosensitivity. Feeling numbness in half of face. Nausea. Vomiting. Redness of the face. The temporal arteries swell and pulsate. Diarrhea and profuse urination. The first characteristic symptoms of migraine are...

Mstoiitis

Mastoiditis is a purulent inflammation of the mucous membrane of the cells and bone tissue of the mastoid process of the temporal bone. The mastoid process is a well-palpable bone growth of the temporal bone behind the auricle. When mastoid, all the air-bearing cells of the mastoid process of the temporal bone, including the mastoid cave that communicates with the middle ear cavity, are filled with pus. When pus penetrates outward or inward, there are various complications, even an abscess of the brain is possible. Symptoms Pulsating pain in the ear. Headaches, vomiting. Deterioration of hearing. Deterioration of general well-being. Pain and soreness in the areas behind the...

Multicolored lichen

Lishay is a fairly common skin disease. There are several types of lichen, for example, pink, red flat, multicolored. In this article I will dwell on the multicolored, which is more common than others. Multicolored lichen is a fungal infection that affects the superficial part of the stratum corneum of the epidermis. The disease develops in people suffering from excessive sweating. On the neck, upper body and shoulders, spots appear first pink, then yellow and brown. They can be isolated or merge into large foci. When the stain is scraped, horny masses are removed in the form of shavings. After sunburn, as a result of enhanced peeling, there are usually spots of white color resembling...

Multiple sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the nervous system, which causes damage to the surrounding nerve fibers of the brain and spinal cord of the myelin sheath, as a result of which the function of these nerves is disrupted. Damage to the membrane can occur in different places, so the disease is called multiple sclerosis. Depending on the affected area, various disorders occur, for example, muscle tension, paralysis, imbalance and coordination, skin sensitivity disorders, gallbladder dysfunction and urinary incontinence function, intellectual disorders, depression, trigeminal neuralgia, paralysis of the motor muscles of the eye Apple, optic nerve damage, loss of vision. A...

Muscle aches, cramps

When they say that the muscles ache, they mean the pain of the muscles of the musculoskeletal system, for example, the muscle of the leg or arm or the muscle of the chest, back, or shoulder. All these muscles are striated, and the person can freely move them. However, other muscles may also hurt, for example, the heart muscle, but in this case, the term "muscle pain" is not used to express the signs of pain. What is a muscle cramp? Cramps - sudden involuntary contraction of muscles (contraction). Most often, a spasm can occur in the gastrocnemius muscle as a result of great physical exertion (prolonged walking, swimming) or as a result of circulatory disorders. Depending on the...

Myeloma and plasmacytoma

lasmacytoma and myeloma are related oncological diseases. With these diseases, plasma cells of the bone marrow - plasmocytes - grow. Plasmacytoma is most often manifested as an isolated tumor of the bone, but sometimes it is also plural. For such lesions, bone destruction is characteristic, and the bone marrow remains untouched. Over time, the plasmacytoma is scattered to many places in the bone marrow and then becomes a myeloma. This disease occurs more often than the plasmacytoma. It affects the cells of the bone marrow of the vertebrae of the spine, ribs, sternum and skull bones. Appear pale pink or gray nodes of tumor tissue, dissolving surrounding bone tissue. Symptoms of the disease...

Myocardial infarction

Myocardial infarction is a heart disease caused by acute insufficiency of its blood supply, with the emergence of a foci of necrosis in the heart. As a result of the accumulation in the walls of substances with a high content of proteins and blood fats, the conductivity of the coronary vessels of the heart gradually decreases, so the myocardium constantly receives too little oxygen. The blood vessels supplying the heart muscle become brittle, their lumen narrowing. With sudden increases in physical or psychological load, the need for oxygen increases, and the reduction of the altered blood vessels can reach a critical limit, further reducing blood flow. At this time, myocardial...

Myoma of the uterus

Myoma is a benign tumor. It develops in organs with smooth muscles, mainly in the uterus, less often in the striated muscles. Uterine fibroids do not pose a direct threat to life, but timely treatment is necessary. The nodes of the myomas are composed of muscle and connective tissue, such nodes can be from one to several dozen. Tumors are the size of both a needle eye and a human head. This tumor occurs, as a rule, in women over 35 years of age. With a rapid increase in a benign tumor, it can degenerate into a malignant tumor, so it must be surgically removed. Symptoms Lower abdominal pain. Pain during sexual intercourse. Violation of the menstrual cycle. Tumor pressure on adjacent...