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ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Pain in bones and joints

There are about 245 different bones in the human body. These bones are the supporting framework for soft tissues, most of the muscles are attached to the bones. The joint is the structure that provides the movable joint of two or more bones. The joint consists of an articular head and an articular cavity, covered with cartilage. From the displacement of the joint retains the ligaments and the joint capsule from the connective tissue. Pain in the bone or in the joint is often a consequence of trauma. When there is pain in several bones or joints in different parts of the body, one can assume the presence of a bone disease or some internal disease of the body. Causes of pain in bones and...

Pain in the sacrum

What is pain in the sacrum? Back pain is one of the main problems of modern medicine. Lumbar pain is constantly experienced by 60 to 90% of people. The spine is the main part of the axial skeleton of vertebrates and humans. In humans, the spine consists of 7 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral and 3-5 (usually 4) coccygeal vertebrae, connected by intervertebral discs, ligaments and joints to a flexible spinal column. The basis of the spine, which provides support for all overlying departments and is most stressed, is the sacrum. It, together with the crests of the iliac bones, forms the main supporting part of the pelvis, which transfers the weight of the body to the feet and...

Pain in the side

Causes of pain in the side The pain in the side is the bod, localized in the right or left side. Its appearance is most often a symptom of a disease. Pain in the upper part of the body can be caused by damage to the ribs, lung or heart disease. In diseases of the heart, pain is most often localized in the left side of the chest. In addition, the pain can radiate in the side and with diseases of the thoracic spine. The cause of pain in the lower part of the body is usually kidney disease. The side can also hurt with diseases of the gallbladder, intestines, liver, spleen, in women - with ovarian diseases. Kidney Diseases Usually renal colic can be accurately diagnosed by the...

Pain when urinating

The usual capacity of the urinary bladder is about 150-500 ml of urine. In fact, it can contain up to 1 liter of urine. A natural urge to urinate occurs when the bladder is filled with 2/3 of its volume. Urination is a reflex act, which is controlled by the centers located in the spinal cord. When the bladder is filled, the centers become irritated, and the nerves that escape from them stimulate the muscular contractions of the bladder and the relaxation of the internal sphincter of the urethra. This is how the bladder is emptied in newborns and in children up to 2-3 years. However, an adult by force of will can delay urination. Pain when urinating urine is a condition that occurs when...

Pale skin

What is pallor? Pallor of the skin (more often - the face) occurs as a result of various diseases and factors that adversely affect the human body. The color of the skin depends on the amount of circulating blood in small arteries and capillaries. With narrowing of the blood vessels, the person pales. With the expansion of blood vessels due to a large influx of blood, the skin reddens. Changes in the lumen of the blood vessels regulate two parts of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (SNS and PNS). The mediator of the SNS (the substance that transmits the impulse) is epinephrine, in the selection of which the blood vessels narrow. The...

Pancreas cancer

The pancreas is a large digestive gland of internal and external secretion, about 15 cm in length, located in the upper part of the abdominal cavity, between the stomach and the back wall of the abdomen. Consists of head, body and tail. The exocrine part of the pancreas is represented by acinous cells that produce pancreatic (pancreatic) juice that enters the digestive duct into the duodenum and provides digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. In the pancreas are also located groups of endocrine cells (the so-called islets of Langerhans) - these are isolated groups of cells consisting of several types of cells, the main ones of which are A-cells that produce glucagon and B cells...

Paralysis

What is paralysis? All the human muscles are innervated by nerve fibers, which provide muscle contraction exactly when it becomes necessary. Muscle contractions regulate the brain. Impulses through the spinal cord along the conductive pathways of the central nervous system come to these or other muscles. In the walls of hollow organs (for example, the stomach, intestine) are smooth muscles. Meanwhile, the muscles of the skeleton are called transversely striated. The function of smooth muscles is regulated by the autonomic nervous system, their reduction does not depend on the will of man. Paralysis is the loss of the motor function of any muscle or group of muscles due to damage to the...

Paralysis of the extremities

Paralysis of the limbs is a pathology that develops as a result of a spinal cord injury. Distinguish complete and partial paralysis. With complete paralysis, there is a disruption of the integrity of the spinal cord, the muscular weakness of one or another part of the body depends on the level of damage. If the violation of the integrity of the spinal cord occurred at level IV of the cervical vertebra or higher, then paralysis of respiration develops, which can lead to death. Paralysis of all four limbs is called tetraplegia. Tetraplegia is manifested when the spinal cord is damaged at the level of the IV, V and VI cervical vertebra, but the patient can raise and bend his hands. If the...

Paralysis of the facial nerve

Human facial muscles that provide speech, mastication and facial expression are innervated by the VII pair of cranial nerves called the facial nerve. Inflammation of the nerve can occur as a result of trauma, draft or inflammation. Paralysis or paresis of muscles innervated by this nerve appears. The eye of the affected side of the face is wide open, it can not be closed (lagophthalmus). There is a danger of the drying of the cornea and the connective membrane of the eye. The affected part of the face saggers, the mouth is twisted. If the drum nerve is damaged, pain in the ear may appear, and irritation of the rootlets of the tongue may lead to disturbances in taste sensations. Symptoms of...

Paratif

Paratyph is a group of acute infectious diseases, proceeding like typhoid fever. Paratyphae A, B and C are distinguished. Symptoms of this disease are similar to those of typhoid fever, but the course of the disease is not so severe. When a person becomes infected, he shiver, the temperature rises, there are rashes on his lips, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, pink spots appear on the skin. Symptoms Nausea. Vomiting. Diarrhea. Rashes on the lips. Increased body temperature. Chills. The incubation period is less than with typhoid fever, the course of the disease is easier. The first symptoms appear after 4-5 days. There is nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, fever rises, chills occur, high...

Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease, or trembling paralysis - is a disease characterized by a violation of the transmission of signals between different cells of the brain. The variety of symptoms of Parkinson's disease is explained by the fact that both motor functions and intellect, cognitive activity are violated. Characteristic of constant trembling, gait in small steps, there is a "bending posture." Often, the mouth accumulates a lot of saliva, the balance is disturbed, movement is difficult, the voice changes. Another symptom characteristic of this disease is that it is difficult for a patient to start a movement, and especially to take the first steps, it is also difficult for him to stop and finish...

Pelvic injuries

With pelvic injuries, it is possible to damage bones, muscles, internal organs and blood vessels. The most frequent damage to the pelvis is a fracture of the pelvic bones. The pelvis is a part of the human skeleton that connects the lower extremities with the trunk. It is formed by a fixed bone ring, consisting of two pelvic bones, each of which consists of three intergrown bones (iliac, ischial and pubic). The iliac bones and sacrum connect the joints, whose movements are limited. Below with the sacrum connects the lowest part of the spine - the coccyx. Both pubic bones are connected in front, forming a pubic symphysis. The pelvic outlet is closed from below by a powerful...

pemphigus

Pemphigus - one of the most serious diseases of a viral origin, belongs to the group of rare skin diseases characterized by blisters on the skin. They appear for no apparent reason in the upper layer of the skin and, above all, on the mucosa of the oral cavity. Bubbles burst quickly, a clear liquid flows out of them. On the affected skin areas crusts are formed. True pemphigus is accompanied by the appearance on unaltered skin or mucous membranes of blisters that tend to generalize and merge. This disease is most affected by men and people of advanced age. Children are ill very rarely. In severe cases, the vesicles can spread throughout the surface of the body, like psoriasis. Symptoms...

Pericarditis

All internal organs are surrounded by a solid capsule. The heart is located in the pericardial sac, or pericardium. Pericardium is the outer shell of the heart, which consists of two sheets: the inner, covering the muscle of the heart and the outer one. Between these leaves is a very narrow cavity (pericardial cavity) containing a minimum amount of fluid. The causes of inflammation of the pericardial sac are manifold. The first symptoms of the disease are fever and severe pain. Pericarditis can be dry and exudative. In the first case, there is a deficiency of fluid in the pericardial cavity (between the leaves), in the second there is an excess. Symptoms Pain in the chest. Increased...

Persecution mania

What is persecution mania? For a person is characterized by an individual perception of reality. A strongly distorted view of reality, which can not be explained either by experience or by the laws of logic, is called a mania. Most mental disorders are characterized by obsessive thoughts. Disorders of thoughts are manifold. These include delusions (distortion and denial of reality), fears, obsessive-compulsive disorders (obsessive thoughts and actions), mania (paranoia). The reality in the mind of a person suffering from mania can be distorted beyond recognition. For example, a person who is afraid of poisoning, does not drink or eat anywhere. Someone thinks that he is being pursued...

Phantom pain

Phantom pain is a strong pain syndrome felt by the patient in a non-existent part of the body (usually occurs after limb amputation). Often, because of the damage to the blood vessels due to an accident or a serious illness, a person has to amputate the limb or part of it. Almost all patients who underwent amputation, after a while, claim that they "feel" pain in the amputated part of the body. Such sensations are called phantom. It is estimated that approximately 30% of patients experience severe pain in amputated limbs. For example, a person with an amputated foot complains of pain in her, although in reality the foot does not already exist. Symptoms After amputation, patients...

Phobia, phobia, fear neurosis

What is the neurosis of fear and phobia? Some people are always waiting for danger, although there is no reason for this. Such people suffer from a neurosis of fear, which is a form of neuropsychic disorders characterized by a sense of fear, obsessive thoughts, drives, memories, desires, states and (or) actions. Often a person can remain critical and an adequate assessment of the surrounding reality. Symptoms of a neurosis of fear and phobias Anxiety, a sense of insecurity. Excitement, panic. Violations of consciousness, thinking, and perception. Dryness in the throat, difficulty breathing. Increased sweating. Nausea, vomiting. The urge to urinate, diarrhea. Frequent...

Photophobia

Photophobia - increased sensitivity of the eye to daylight or artificial light, which is accompanied by involuntary closing of the eyelids and lacrimation. Photophobia has nothing to do with mental illness heliophobia - fear of being in the sun. Causes of photophobia Photophobia can be congenital, for example, with congenital deficiency or absence of pigment melanin in the body. Photophobia can also cause some medications. In addition, there are many eye diseases accompanied by photophobia. Photophobia can occur. For example, acute or chronic conjunctivitis (inflammation of the connective membrane of the eye), keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), iritis (inflammation of the iris),...

Plaque in the language

What is a plaque in the tongue? The mucous membrane of the tongue is smooth in the root region, the lower surface of the body and the apex and is roughen on the back of the tongue. Roughness is due to a large number of small elevations of the tongue papillae. The ends of these formations are cornified, branched, which explains the natural grayish-white color of the plaque on the tongue. Sometimes the smallest particles of food are attached to the rough surface of the tongue, which color it in a different color. This color change is not dangerous - soon the natural color of the language is restored. However, often the discoloration of the tongue is a symptom of the disease. In such...

Polycystic kidney disease

Polycystic kidney disease is a congenital disease characterized by the formation and growth of cysts in both kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease is a congenital anomaly of their development. This is the most frequent developmental defect, it is often combined with polycystosis of other organs (liver, pancreas, lungs, etc.). The disease is often of a family nature. As a rule, both kidneys are involved in the process. Cysts are formed at the stage of the secondary kidney as a result of the absence or incorrect attachment of the secretory and excretory elements of the nephron. This leads to a violation of patency for primary urine, increased pressure in the tubules of the kidneys and the...

Polyneuropathy of legs and arms

Polyneuropathy is the defeat of the peripheral nerves. The main symptoms of polyneuropathy are disorders of sensitivity, which are distributed evenly on both sides of the body, more often in both extremities. The sensitivity in the area of the hands and feet is more violated than in other parts of the body. In addition, there is paresthesia (numbness, a sense of crawling), a decrease in sensitivity to pain and impairment of the functions of various organs. Symptoms of the disease Hypesesia (decreased skin sensitivity). Paresthesia (numbness, crawling sensation). Relaxation of sensitivity to pain. Violations of the functions of organs. Paralysis of muscles. Causes of the disease...

Porphyry

Porphyria is affected by a metabolic disorder in the liver or the inability to reproduce the blood pigment in the bone marrow, or heme, an important substance for liver enzymes. Porphyria is a generalized name for diseases caused by a disorder in the metabolism and biosynthesis of heme in the body. When there is a shortage of different enzymes in the heme biosynthesis chain, protoporphyrin and iron accumulate in the erythrocytes. There are many different forms of porphyria, most of them are inherited. Most often it is an acute intermittent hepatic porphyria. Disease is an inherited enzyme defect. However, its symptoms are inherent in almost half of all those who suffer from this disease....

Post-traumatic arthritis

Posttraumatic arthritis results from traumas of motion type or fissure: cartilage joint fissure; meniscus; joint capsule; joint space hemorrhage; tendon rupture; connective tissue. Ankle joint and knee joint are most often get traumatized. And posttraumatic arthritis strikes exactly these body parts. The importance of joint treatment after traumatizing is out of the question, since arthritis progression undergoes gradually and unnoticeably. Microfissure, which is to be forgotten after few days, may become a negative result for a joint. SECONDARY CAUSES Additionally to traumas, posttraumatic arthritis can be caused by hard physical loads of joint capsule, disease development...

Prepatellar burisits

Prepatellar bursitis belongs to the group of diseases which affect loco-motor system. Typical features – inflammation of prepatellar bursa occurs in knee joint. Evident symptoms of this pathology are edema above the knee and sharp pain, especially after heavy physical exercises. WHAT IS BURSA Bursa is a kind of sac, which consists of thin tissue. Its function is to make joint motion gliding. Synovial fluid, which locates within the bursa, reduces friction and provides slight bending of knee joint. CAUSES Prepatellar knee bursitis caused for a range of reasons, mostly due to trauma. Traumatizing Falls of blows may dramatically damage the bursa. The most dangerous is internal...

Prostate Cancer

The prostate gland (prostate) is part of the male genital organs. It has small dimensions, secretes a secret that joins the sperm and supports the activity of spermatozoa. In shape and size resembles a chestnut. The prostate weighs about 20 g and is located between the bladder and rectum. It covers the initial part of the urethra, into which the seed duct and seminal vesicles open. The prostate is surrounded by a capsule, which includes 30-50 individual glands surrounded by fibro-muscular septa. These glands produce a liquid alkaline secret resembling milk, which during ejaculation mixes with spermatozoa, activates them and protects from the acidic environment of the vagina. Prostate...

Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis is the joint damage, which progresses with the psoriasis background. The disease consists of two ailments – psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. They may precede each other or occur simultaneously. Psoriasis is dermatological disease of psychosomatic manner, which affected 1% of world population. Patient’s affected by psoriasis have 50% more chance to be affected by rheumatoid arthritis. Women suffer less from this disease, but risk group includes individuals from 20 to 50 without regard to sex. CAUSES The disease development is characterized by change of epidermis cells, which caused by chemical and biological disorders. As a result, inflammation process caused in...

Psoriatic arthritis treatment

Treatment of arthritis of psoriatic type directed to pain-revealing effect, reducing of inflammation process and removal of degeneration processes. Treatment depends on stage of disease progression. In most cases medical workers use anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs. Ointments are also commonly used. DRUGS Most often doctors administer 3 groups of drugs for treatment of psoriatic arthritis: non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); hormone drugs; disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs); NSAIDs NSAIDs are effective against pain and inflammation. They include: Movalis, Nimesulid, Celebrex, Piroxicamum, Aceclofenac, and also derivative – Diclofenac, Ortophen,...

Psycho-vegetative Syndrome

Psycho-vegetative syndrome is a painful condition characterized by heart problems (a feeling of squeezing, rapid heartbeat), headaches, heaviness in the stomach, a violation of urination, increased sensitivity to cold, sweating, nausea, dizziness, irregularities in the menstrual cycle. In addition, depression, various phobias, inner anxiety, anxiety, irritability, insomnia and apathy are often noted. All these symptoms are characterized by patients as pronounced. However, after a thorough medical examination, it turns out that the internal organs (heart, stomach, intestine and bladder) of patients are absolutely healthy. Symptoms of psychovegetative syndrome Heart ailments. Heaviness...

Psychosomatic diseases

What is psychosomatics? In the medical literature, psychosomatics is defined as the direction of medical research that studies the influence of mental factors on the occurrence and course of physical (somatic) diseases. Organic lesions and functional disorders are evaluated taking into account the mental, mental state of a person, his social environment, life situation and personality characteristics of the patient. In traditional medicine, psychosomatics is an independent direction. Symptoms of psychosomatic illnesses Diarrhea. Gastritis Sensitive stomach. Stomach ulcer. Difficulty breathing. High blood pressure. Headache. Pain in joints and limbs. Structure of...