Search

ALPHABETIC INDEX OF DISEASES AND HUMAN CONDITIONS

Pain in the side

Causes of pain in the side The pain in the side is the bod, localized in the right or left side. Its appearance is most often a symptom of a disease. Pain in the upper part of the body can be caused by damage to the ribs, lung or heart disease. In diseases of the heart, pain is most often localized in the left side of the chest. In addition, the pain can radiate in the side and with diseases of the thoracic spine. The cause of pain in the lower part of the body is usually kidney disease. The side can also hurt with diseases of the gallbladder, intestines, liver, spleen, in women - with ovarian diseases. Kidney Diseases Usually renal colic can be accurately diagnosed by the...

Painful urination: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

The usual capacity of the urinary bladder is about 150-500 ml of urine. In fact, it can contain up to 1 liter of urine. A natural urge to urinate occurs when the bladder is filled with 2/3 of its volume. Urination is a reflex act, which is controlled by the centers located in the spinal cord. When the bladder is filled, the centers become irritated, and the nerves that escape from them stimulate the muscular contractions of the bladder and the relaxation of the internal sphincter of the urethra. This is how the bladder is emptied in newborns and in children up to 2-3 years. However, an adult by force of will can delay urination. Pain when urinating urine is a condition that occurs when...

Paleness: Causes, Symptoms, Diagnosis, and Treatment

What is pallor? Pallor of the skin (more often - the face) occurs as a result of various diseases and factors that adversely affect the human body. The color of the skin depends on the amount of circulating blood in small arteries and capillaries. With narrowing of the blood vessels, the person pales. With the expansion of blood vessels due to a large influx of blood, the skin reddens. Changes in the lumen of the blood vessels regulate two parts of the autonomic nervous system - the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems (SNS and PNS). The mediator of the SNS (the substance that transmits the impulse) is epinephrine, in the selection of which the blood vessels narrow. The...

Pancreatic Cancer Symptoms, Stages, Survival Rates & Causes

The pancreas is a large digestive gland of internal and external secretion, about 15 cm in length, located in the upper part of the abdominal cavity, between the stomach and the back wall of the abdomen. Consists of head, body and tail. The exocrine part of the pancreas is represented by acinous cells that produce pancreatic (pancreatic) juice that enters the digestive duct into the duodenum and provides digestion of proteins, fats, and carbohydrates. In the pancreas are also located groups of endocrine cells (the so-called islets of Langerhans) - these are isolated groups of cells consisting of several types of cells, the main ones of which are A-cells that produce glucagon and B cells...

Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder: Symptoms, Treatment, and Tips

A panic attack is an unexplained sudden onset of poor health, in which the patient is disturbed by a sense of anxiety, combined with different vegetative symptoms. To determine this term, doctors often use a number of other terms: vegetative crisis, IRR with a crisis current, cardioneurosis, etc. In panic attacks, there are clear symptoms. Treatment of this condition should be carried out by a specialist. How does a panic attack manifest itself? An acute, suddenly gripped sense of unreasonable anxiety had to be experienced at least once, probably, to every person. Such panic disorders are usually accompanied by sudden manifestation of a strong palpitation, a sensation of faintness and...

Paranoid personality disorder

Paranoid personality disorder, which is also commonly called paranoia, is a form of psychosis in which a person periodically experiences delusions, or they become stronger in his mind. But at the same time, normal mental abilities and relatively correct thinking are preserved. There are also no sharp mood changes in the patient. Paranoia is a condition in which a patient shows suspicion and distrust of people. At the same time, he too strongly believes in his own abilities and ideas. Consequently, such people overstated the self-esteem, marked stiffness of the psyche and a tendency to suspicion. Causes The reasons for which a person develops paranoia, some experts consider violations in...

Parkinson's Disease: Symptoms, Treatments, Causes, Tests

Parkinson's disease, or trembling paralysis - is a disease characterized by a violation of the transmission of signals between different cells of the brain. The variety of symptoms of Parkinson's disease is explained by the fact that both motor functions and intellect, cognitive activity are violated. Characteristic of constant trembling, gait in small steps, there is a "bending posture." Often, the mouth accumulates a lot of saliva, the balance is disturbed, movement is difficult, the voice changes. Another symptom characteristic of this disease is that it is difficult for a patient to start a movement, and especially to take the first steps, it is also difficult for him to stop and finish...

Pelvic Fractures - Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis and Treatment

With pelvic injuries, it is possible to damage bones, muscles, internal organs and blood vessels. The most frequent damage to the pelvis is a fracture of the pelvic bones. The pelvis is a part of the human skeleton that connects the lower extremities with the trunk. It is formed by a fixed bone ring, consisting of two pelvic bones, each of which consists of three intergrown bones (iliac, ischial and pubic). The iliac bones and sacrum connect the joints, whose movements are limited. Below with the sacrum connects the lowest part of the spine - the coccyx. Both pubic bones are connected in front, forming a pubic symphysis. The pelvic outlet is closed from below by a powerful...

Pemphigus Vulgaris: Cause, Types, and Symptoms

Pemphigus - one of the most serious diseases of a viral origin, belongs to the group of rare skin diseases characterized by blisters on the skin. They appear for no apparent reason in the upper layer of the skin and, above all, on the mucosa of the oral cavity. Bubbles burst quickly, a clear liquid flows out of them. On the affected skin areas crusts are formed. True pemphigus is accompanied by the appearance on unaltered skin or mucous membranes of blisters that tend to generalize and merge. This disease is most affected by men and people of advanced age. Children are ill very rarely. In severe cases, the vesicles can spread throughout the surface of the body, like psoriasis. Symptoms...

Penis Cancer Causes, Treatment & Symptoms

Malignant tumors of the penis can cause severe complications. In developed countries, such tumors are very rare and account for approximately 1% of all malignant tumors. Most often, the tumor is localized on the head and inner leaf of the foreskin. Symptoms Pain during urination. Severe itching. Sperm with an admixture of blood. Warts and knots. Dense formations on the penis. Fetid smell. Watery, purulent discharge and bleeding. At first, the symptoms of the disease are slightly expressed (mild itching or burning sensation during urination). Then they intensify - urination is accompanied by pain, the skin of the sexual organ becomes strained, bladder emptying becomes difficult,...

Periodontal Disease: Causes and Prevention

Parodontosis is a systemic lesion of periodontium - that is, tissue located near the teeth. Periodontal disease is commonly called a fairly large group of diseases that affect the periodontium. In this group the main ailments are gingivitis, periodontitis and periodontitis. With periodontal disease there is a gradual atrophy of alveolar processes, that is, dental cells. As a result of this process, the teeth become mobile, and in particularly neglected cases they fall out.Causes of periodontitisTo date, there is no precise information about why periodontal disease occurs. However, experts believe that a significant role belongs to the hereditary predisposition to the disease. Periodontal...

Periodontitis: Treatment, home remedies, and symptoms

Periodontitis is a disease characterized by the spread of the inflammatory process from the gum to the underlying tissues. The disease is manifested by progressive destruction of periodontal disease, as well as bone tissue in the interdental septa. Periodontitis has a small thickness (only 0.2-0.25 mm), but with inflammation in this tissue a person suffers from very severe pain. In addition, his tooth loosens and the tissue of the surrounding bone dissolves.CausesMost often periodontitis in children and adults is manifested as a consequence of the impact on the body of infection. In more rare cases, the cause of periodontitis is trauma or the effect of toxins on the body. If the infection...

Peripheral Cyanosis: Symptoms, Causes

What is cyanosis? Cyanosis (from the Greek kyanos - dark blue) is a cyanotic coloration of the skin and mucous membranes. The most common is cyanosis of the fingers, lips, face, and in severe cases - a common cyanosis of the skin and mucous membranes. The bluish skin tone is caused by a change in the color of the blood, namely the high content of reduced hemoglobin in it. On the arteries, hemoglobin, connected with oxygen, enters the organs. Blood, saturated with oxygen, has a bright red color. In cells, oxygen is replaced by carbon dioxide, then through the veins blood is sent to the heart and lungs. The "used" blood retains a bluish tint until the carbon dioxide contained in the...

Peripheral Neuropathy: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Polyneuropathy is the defeat of the peripheral nerves. The main symptoms of polyneuropathy are disorders of sensitivity, which are distributed evenly on both sides of the body, more often in both extremities. The sensitivity in the area of the hands and feet is more violated than in other parts of the body. In addition, there is paresthesia (numbness, a sense of crawling), a decrease in sensitivity to pain and impairment of the functions of various organs. Symptoms of the disease Hypesesia (decreased skin sensitivity). Paresthesia (numbness, crawling sensation). Relaxation of sensitivity to pain. Violations of the functions of organs. Paralysis of muscles. Causes of the disease...

Persecution mania

What is persecution mania? For a person is characterized by an individual perception of reality. A strongly distorted view of reality, which can not be explained either by experience or by the laws of logic, is called a mania. Most mental disorders are characterized by obsessive thoughts. Disorders of thoughts are manifold. These include delusions (distortion and denial of reality), fears, obsessive-compulsive disorders (obsessive thoughts and actions), mania (paranoia). The reality in the mind of a person suffering from mania can be distorted beyond recognition. For example, a person who is afraid of poisoning, does not drink or eat anywhere. Someone thinks that he is being pursued...

Phantom pain: Symptoms, Causes, Treatment of pain after amputation

Phantom pain is a strong pain syndrome felt by the patient in a non-existent part of the body (usually occurs after limb amputation). Often, because of the damage to the blood vessels due to an accident or a serious illness, a person has to amputate the limb or part of it. Almost all patients who underwent amputation, after a while, claim that they "feel" pain in the amputated part of the body. Such sensations are called phantom. It is estimated that approximately 30% of patients experience severe pain in amputated limbs. For example, a person with an amputated foot complains of pain in her, although in reality the foot does not already exist. Symptoms After amputation, patients...

Phobia, phobia, fear neurosis

What is the neurosis of fear and phobia? Some people are always waiting for danger, although there is no reason for this. Such people suffer from a neurosis of fear, which is a form of neuropsychic disorders characterized by a sense of fear, obsessive thoughts, drives, memories, desires, states and (or) actions. Often a person can remain critical and an adequate assessment of the surrounding reality. Symptoms of a neurosis of fear and phobias Anxiety, a sense of insecurity. Excitement, panic. Violations of consciousness, thinking, and perception. Dryness in the throat, difficulty breathing. Increased sweating. Nausea, vomiting. The urge to urinate, diarrhea. Frequent...

Photophobia: Causes, Symptoms and Diagnosis

Photophobia - increased sensitivity of the eye to daylight or artificial light, which is accompanied by involuntary closing of the eyelids and lacrimation. Photophobia has nothing to do with mental illness heliophobia - fear of being in the sun. Causes of photophobia Photophobia can be congenital, for example, with congenital deficiency or absence of pigment melanin in the body. Photophobia can also cause some medications. In addition, there are many eye diseases accompanied by photophobia. Photophobia can occur. For example, acute or chronic conjunctivitis (inflammation of the connective membrane of the eye), keratitis (inflammation of the cornea), iritis (inflammation of the iris),...

Plaque in the tongue

What is a plaque in the tongue? The mucous membrane of the tongue is smooth in the root region, the lower surface of the body and the apex and is roughen on the back of the tongue. Roughness is due to a large number of small elevations of the tongue papillae. The ends of these formations are cornified, branched, which explains the natural grayish-white color of the plaque on the tongue. Sometimes the smallest particles of food are attached to the rough surface of the tongue, which color it in a different color. This color change is not dangerous - soon the natural color of the language is restored. However, often the discoloration of the tongue is a symptom of the disease. In such...

Pleural Mesothelioma | Treatment, Prognosis & Diagnosis

Pleural cancer (mesothelioma) is a malignant tumor that occurs in the pleura or peritoneum. Pleura - a thin serous membrane surrounding the lungs (visceral or pulmonary) and the internal surface of the thorax (parietal pleura). This serous membrane has a smooth, moist, shiny surface, due to the secretion of a small amount of fluid in it. The pleura is covered with mesothelium - a single-layered flat epithelium lining the serous membranes of the body cavities of vertebrates. Between the parental and visceral sheets of the pleura there is a pleural cavity with a small amount of liquid, which reduces the friction of the sheets with respiratory movements of the lungs, so that they can slide...

Poisoning by Urine

Uremia (self-poisoning by urine) is not a disease, but a pathological condition caused by renal insufficiency that has arisen due to a number of reasons. Chronic uremia develops with the accumulation of poisonous metabolic products in the body due to impaired urine output. Usually, metabolic products are excreted from the body with urine. If the kidneys are disturbed, these substances, as well as water, remain in the body. This leads to the accumulation of water in the subcutaneous tissue and the development of edema. In the blood, the content of toxic slags increases, water-salt metabolism and acid-base balance are disrupted (so-called acidosis is observed). Because of this, uraemia occurs....

Polycystic Kidney Disease (PKD) Symptoms, Treatments, & Causes

Polycystic kidney disease is a congenital disease characterized by the formation and growth of cysts in both kidneys. Polycystic kidney disease is a congenital anomaly of their development. This is the most frequent developmental defect, it is often combined with polycystosis of other organs (liver, pancreas, lungs, etc.). The disease is often of a family nature. As a rule, both kidneys are involved in the process. Cysts are formed at the stage of the secondary kidney as a result of the absence or incorrect attachment of the secretory and excretory elements of the nephron. This leads to a violation of patency for primary urine, increased pressure in the tubules of the kidneys and the...

Porphyria: Types, Symptoms, Causes, and Treatment

Porphyria is affected by a metabolic disorder in the liver or the inability to reproduce the blood pigment in the bone marrow, or heme, an important substance for liver enzymes. Porphyria is a generalized name for diseases caused by a disorder in the metabolism and biosynthesis of heme in the body. When there is a shortage of different enzymes in the heme biosynthesis chain, protoporphyrin and iron accumulate in the erythrocytes. There are many different forms of porphyria, most of them are inherited. Most often it is an acute intermittent hepatic porphyria. Disease is an inherited enzyme defect. However, its symptoms are inherent in almost half of all those who suffer from this disease....

Post-Traumatic Arthritis: Symptoms, Prevention & Treatment

Posttraumatic arthritis results from traumas of motion type or fissure: cartilage joint fissure; meniscus; joint capsule; joint space hemorrhage; tendon rupture; connective tissue. Ankle joint and knee joint are most often get traumatized. And posttraumatic arthritis strikes exactly these body parts. The importance of joint treatment after traumatizing is out of the question, since arthritis progression undergoes gradually and unnoticeably. Microfissure, which is to be forgotten after few days, may become a negative result for a joint. SECONDARY CAUSES Additionally to traumas, posttraumatic arthritis can be caused by hard physical loads of joint capsule, disease development...

Prepatellar Bursitis Treatment

Prepatellar bursitis belongs to the group of diseases which affect loco-motor system. Typical features – inflammation of prepatellar bursa occurs in knee joint. Evident symptoms of this pathology are edema above the knee and sharp pain, especially after heavy physical exercises. WHAT IS BURSA Bursa is a kind of sac, which consists of thin tissue. Its function is to make joint motion gliding. Synovial fluid, which locates within the bursa, reduces friction and provides slight bending of knee joint. CAUSES Prepatellar knee bursitis caused for a range of reasons, mostly due to trauma. Traumatizing Falls of blows may dramatically damage the bursa. The most dangerous is internal...

Primary Aldosteronism Symptoms and Treatment

Connes syndrome is a combination of muscle weakness, anomalously strong thirst, the production of a large amount of urine and hypertension, which arises from the excessive secretion of the hormone aldosterone by the adrenal cortex. Symptoms may appear during pregnancy. This rare disease, sometimes also called "primary aldosteronism," was discovered in 1955 by the American physician Jerome Conn. Women are exposed to this hormonal disease twice as often as men. Usually they get sick at the age of 30-50 years. Symptoms of Connes syndrome Dizziness. Fatigue. High blood pressure. Muscle weakness. Heart rhythm disturbances. Abundant urination. Causes of Connes Syndrome Conn's...

Prostate Cancer Symptoms, Causes, Stages & Survival Rate

The prostate gland (prostate) is part of the male genital organs. It has small dimensions, secretes a secret that joins the sperm and supports the activity of spermatozoa. In shape and size resembles a chestnut. The prostate weighs about 20 g and is located between the bladder and rectum. It covers the initial part of the urethra, into which the seed duct and seminal vesicles open. The prostate is surrounded by a capsule, which includes 30-50 individual glands surrounded by fibro-muscular septa. These glands produce a liquid alkaline secret resembling milk, which during ejaculation mixes with spermatozoa, activates them and protects from the acidic environment of the vagina. Prostate...

Psoriatic arthritis treatment

Treatment of arthritis of psoriatic type directed to pain-revealing effect, reducing of inflammation process and removal of degeneration processes. Treatment depends on stage of disease progression. In most cases medical workers use anti-inflammatory and antirheumatic drugs. Ointments are also commonly used. DRUGS Most often doctors administer 3 groups of drugs for treatment of psoriatic arthritis: non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); hormone drugs; disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs); NSAIDs NSAIDs are effective against pain and inflammation. They include: Movalis, Nimesulid, Celebrex, Piroxicamum, Aceclofenac, and also derivative – Diclofenac, Ortophen,...

Psoriatic Arthritis Types, Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

Psoriatic arthritis is the joint damage, which progresses with the psoriasis background. The disease consists of two ailments – psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis. They may precede each other or occur simultaneously. Psoriasis is dermatological disease of psychosomatic manner, which affected 1% of world population. Patient’s affected by psoriasis have 50% more chance to be affected by rheumatoid arthritis. Women suffer less from this disease, but risk group includes individuals from 20 to 50 without regard to sex. CAUSES The disease development is characterized by change of epidermis cells, which caused by chemical and biological disorders. As a result, inflammation process caused in...

Psycho-vegetative syndrome

Psycho-vegetative syndrome is a painful condition characterized by heart problems (a feeling of squeezing, rapid heartbeat), headaches, heaviness in the stomach, a violation of urination, increased sensitivity to cold, sweating, nausea, dizziness, irregularities in the menstrual cycle. In addition, depression, various phobias, inner anxiety, anxiety, irritability, insomnia and apathy are often noted. All these symptoms are characterized by patients as pronounced. However, after a thorough medical examination, it turns out that the internal organs (heart, stomach, intestine and bladder) of patients are absolutely healthy. Symptoms of psychovegetative syndrome Heart ailments. Heaviness...

Psychosomatic Disorder: Causes, Symptoms, Types, And Treatments

What is psychosomatics? In the medical literature, psychosomatics is defined as the direction of medical research that studies the influence of mental factors on the occurrence and course of physical (somatic) diseases. Organic lesions and functional disorders are evaluated taking into account the mental, mental state of a person, his social environment, life situation and personality characteristics of the patient. In traditional medicine, psychosomatics is an independent direction. Symptoms of psychosomatic illnesses Diarrhea. Gastritis Sensitive stomach. Stomach ulcer. Difficulty breathing. High blood pressure. Headache. Pain in joints and limbs. Structure of...

Pulpitis treatment, symptoms, causes

Pulpitis is an inflammatory process that occurs in the pulp of the tooth. Conditionally the pulp is called the nerve of the tooth. Most often the symptoms of pulpitis are manifested as a complication of caries. Sometimes pulpitis manifests itself as a consequence of improper manipulation by the doctor. This can be an operation on the periodontium, poorly established seals, the action of certain chemicals, turning the tooth to install prostheses. Causes of pulpitis Pulpitis of the tooth can develop under the influence of various factors: its progression is affected by both acute and chronic stimuli. Pulpitis most often develops due to the action of microbes that are in the deep heart of...